Advertisement

Global mixing

  • Masaki Satoh
Chapter
Part of the Springer Praxis Books book series (PRAXIS)

Abstract

We have examined meridional circulation of the atmosphere in terms of Hadley circulation in low latitudes and circulations associated with baroclinic waves in midlatitudes. Both circulations have a hemispheric one-cellular structure if viewed as transformed Eulerian mean or isentropic mean circulations. One-cellular circulation is directly described as a thermally driven circulation, and is also related to material transport in the Lagrangian sense. It must be remarked, however, that one-cellular circulation is not a static overturning flow. For instance, associated with baroclinic waves, latitudinally meandering flows along isentropic surfaces predominate at midlatitudes. One-cellular circulation of the atmosphere is characterized by these isentropic flows and cross-isentropic circulations in the meridional section. Isentropic flows are by definition adiabatic, while cross-isentropic flows are related to diabatic heating or cooling. The former results in isentropic mixing through north-south meandering air motions

Keywords

Potential Vorticity Meridional Circulation Diabatic Heating Hadley Circulation Extratropical Cyclone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References and suggested reading

  1. Appenzeller, C., Davies, H. C., and Norton, W.A., 1996: Fragmentation of stratospheric intrusions. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 1435–1456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Browning, K.A., 1997: The dry intrusion perspective of extra-tropical cyclone development. Meteorol.Appl., 4, 317–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Holton, J.R., Haynes, P.H., McIntyre, M. E., Douglass, A.R., Rood, R.B., and Pfister, L., 1995: Stratosphere-troposphere exchange. Reviews of Geophysics, 33, 403–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hoskins, B. J., 1991: Towards a PV-θ view of the general circulation. Tellus, 43A/B, 27–35.Google Scholar
  5. Kida, H., 1977: A numerical investigation of the atmospheric general circulation and stratospheric-tropospheric mass exchange. II: Lagrangian motion of the atmosphere. J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan, 55, 71–88.Google Scholar
  6. Pierrehumbert, R. T., 1999: Subtropical water vapor as a mediator of rapid global climate change. in: Mechanisms of Global Change at Millennial Time Scales, (eds.) P. U. Clark, R. S. Webb, and L. D. Keigwin, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C. Geophysical Monograph Series 112, 394 pp.Google Scholar
  7. Satoh, M., 1999: Relation between the meridional distribution of potential vorticity and the Lagrangian mean circulation in the troposphere. Tellus, 51A, 833– 853.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masaki Satoh
    • 1
  1. 1.Atmosphere and Ocean Research InstituteThe University of TokyoKashiwaJapan

Personalised recommendations