The world is facing a shortage of trained teachers. According to the 2010 Global Monitoring Report approximately 10.3 million teachers will be needed globally to staff classrooms from Bangkok to Canada. The situation is worse in Sub-Saharan Africa. Estimates suggest that approximately 1.2 million new teachers will be needed in Sub-Saharan Africa alone to achieve universal primary education goals by 2015. Increases in primary school enrollments, drought, and HIV-AIDS have exacerbated the need for well trained teachers. Despite the need, the focus is on balancing quality with quantity.  An effective teacher is deemed a critical element, although not the only one, in a student’s success in the classroom. This paper focuses on the dilemma of meeting universal primary education goals in Sub-Saharan Africa, while maintaining teacher quality in fragile contexts.


Sub-Saharan Africa teacher quality EFA UNESCO primary education 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bermingham, D.: Scaling up Aid for Education: Lessons from the Education for All Fast Track Initiative (FTI). UNESCO, Paris (2009)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bonnet, G.: What do Recent Evaluations Tell Us About the State of Teachers in sub-Saharan Countries? Background paper for EFA Global Monitoring Report 2008 (2008)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Duthilleul, Y.: Lesson Learned in the Use of Contract Teachers. UNESCO: International Institute for Educational Planning, Paris (2005)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Haddad, W., Colletta, N., Fisher, N., Lakin, M., Rinaldi, R.: World Conference for Education: Meeting the Basic Learning Needs. Inter-Agency Commission, New York (1990)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    ILO/UNESCO: Recommendation Concerning the Status of Teachers. ILO/UNESCO, Paris (1966) Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Miltiadis, D.L., Miguel, A.S.: The Knowledge Society: a manifesto for knowledge and learning. International Journal of Knowledge and Learning 1(1/2), 1–11 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    OECD: Teachers Matter: Attracting, Developing, and Retaining Effective Teachers. OECD, Paris (2005)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schwille, J., Deiubele, M., Schubert, J.: Global Perspectives on Teacher Learning: Improving Policy and Practice. UNESCO, Paris (2007)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    UNESCO: World Declaration on Education For All. Adopted by the World Conference on Education for All. UNESCO, Jomtien (1996)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    UNESCO: Teacher Education Policy Forum for Sub-Saharan Africa Report. UNESCO, Paris (2008)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    UNESCO: Evaluation of the Teacher Training Initiative for Sub-Saharan Africa (TTISSA). UNESCO, Paris (2009)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    UNESCO: EFA Global Monitoring Report 2009: Reaching the Marginalized. UNESCO/Oxford University Press, Paris (2010)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    UNESCO-IIEP: Educational Marginalization in National Education Plans. Background Paper for EFA Global Monitoring Report. UNESCO, Paris (2009) Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    United Nations: United Nations Development Assistance Framework of Uganda 2006–2010. United Nations, Kampala, Uganda (2005)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    United Nations: Children and Armed Conflict: Report of the General Secretariat. General Assembly Sixty-Second Session of the Security Council of the United Nations. United Nations, New York (2007)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yates, C.: Teacher Education Policy: International Development Discourses and the Development of Teacher Education. Paper Prepared for the Teacher Policy Forum for Sub-Saharan Africa. UNESCO, Paris (2007)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helen Bond
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Education Howard UniversityWashington, DCUSA

Personalised recommendations