Advertisement

Growth and Water Balance Parameters of a Natural Spruce–Larch Forest in Tatra National Park, Slovakia

  • Katarína StřelcováEmail author
  • Dagmar Magová
  • Peter Fleischer
  • Erika Gömöryová
Chapter
  • 839 Downloads
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)

Abstract

The transpiration and stem circumference changes of spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) and larch (Larix decidua Mill.) trees were investigated during the vegetative period of 2009 in the Smrekovec research plot, which is located in Tatra National Park in Slovakia. The plot is situated in a primeval 125-year-old mixed forest (80 % spruce trees and 20 % larch trees) at an altitude of 1,250 m. Meteorological parameters and soil water potentials were also measured during the same period within the investigated plot. Whole-tree transpiration was continuously measured based on the stem-tissue heat balance method in five larch and five spruce tree samples. Stem circumference changes were continuously measured using automatic dendrometers. We also investigated the seasonal and diurnal changes in transpiration. Air temperatures from 6 to 10 °C appeared to control the initiation of cambial bole growth in both species at the beginning of June. The stem circumference increment experienced accelerated growth through the end of June, at which point 80 % of the annual growth in diameter had occurred. Diameter increment ceased to grow in early October. The transpiration rates and stem circumference changes of both species were significantly correlated with micrometeorological factors. On sunny days, we found a linear relationship between transpiration and stem circumference changes (R2 = 0.60 for spruce trees and R2 = 0.56 for larch trees). After the leaves were fully developed, transpiration in larch exceeded that in spruce and lasted as long as the needles were retained on larch trees. We suggest that the phenological state of the larch tree needles is important for regulating the timing of physiological processes, such as transpiration and growth, and that the differences in transpiration rates between these species support the formation of mixed (larch–spruce) multistory stands in an area that was disturbed by a heavy windstorm in 2004.

Keywords

Transpiration Rate Vapor Pressure Deficit Global Radiation Soil Water Potential Diameter Increment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under contract Nos. APVV-0022-07 and APVV-0580-10 and APVV-0111-10 and APVV-0423-10.

References

  1. Capuliak J, Pichler V, Flühler H, Pichlerová M, Homolák M (2010) Beech forest density control on the dominant water flow types in andic soils. Vadose Zone J 9:747–756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Centritto M, Togneti R, Leitgeb E, Střelcová K, Cohen S (2011) Above ground processes—anticipating climate change influences. In: Bredemeier M, Cohen S, Godbold D, Lode E, Pichler V, Schleppi P (eds) Forest management and water cycle. Ecol St vol 212, pp 31–64Google Scholar
  3. Čermák J, Cienciala E, Kuřera J, Lindroth A, Bednářová E (1995) Individual variation of sap-flow rate in large pine and spruce trees and stand transpiration: a pilot study at the central NOPEX site. J Hydrol 168:17–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Čermák J, Kuřera J, Nadezhdina N (2004) Sap flow measurements with thermodynamic methods, flow integration within trees and scaling up from sample trees to entire forest stands. Trees 18:529–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Čermák J, Kuřera J, Bauerle WL, Phillips N, Hinckley TM (2007) Tree water storage and its diurnal dynamics related to sap flow and changes in stem volume in old-growth Douglas-fir trees. Tree Physiol 27:181–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Čermák J, Nadezhdina N, Meiresonne L, Ceulemans R (2008) Scots pine root distribution derived from radial sap flow patterns in stem of large leaning trees. Plant Soil 305:61–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ditmarová Ľ, Kmeť J, Leštianska A, Střelcová K (2008) Analysis of physiological parameters of spruce trees as indicators of spruce dieback in the Spiš region. Folia Oecol 35:1–5Google Scholar
  8. Fleischer P (2008) Windfall research and monitoring in the High Tatra Mts., objectives, principles, methods, and current status. Contrib Geophys Geod 38(3):233–248Google Scholar
  9. Gartner K, Nadezhdina N, Englisch M, Čermák J, Leitgeb E (2009) Sap flow of birch and Norway spruce during the European heat and drought in summer 2003. For Ecol Manag 258:590–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gartner K, English M, Leitgeb E (2011) Effects of climate on the vulnerability of Norway spruce stands—soil hydrological constraints for forest management in Austria’s Lowlands. In: Bredemeier M, Cohen S, Godbold D, Lode E, Pichler V, Schleppi P (eds) Forest management and water cycle. Ecol St vol 212, pp 127–140Google Scholar
  11. Granier A, Biron P, Lemoine D (2000) Water balance, transpiration and canopy conductance in two beech stands. Agric For Meteorol 100:291–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hlásny T, Sitková Z (eds) (2010) Spruce decline in Beskyds. National Forest Centre—Forest Research Institute Zvolen, Czech University of Life Scineces Prague, Forestry and Game Manegement Research Institute Jílovište—Strnady. ZvoleneGoogle Scholar
  13. Holko L, Škvarenina J, Kostka Z, Frič M, Staroň J (2009) Impact of spruce forest on rainfall interception and seasonal snow cover evolution in the Western Tatra Mountains, Slovakia. Biologia 64:594–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hölscher D, Koch O, Korn S, Leuschner Ch (2005) Sap flux of five co-occurring tree species in a temperate broad-leaved forest during seasonal drought. Trees 19:628–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ježík M, Blaženec M, Střelcová K (2007) Intraseasonal stem circumference oscillations: their connection to weather course. Folia Oecol 34(2):105–115Google Scholar
  16. Knott R (2004) Seasonal dynamics of the diameter increment of fir (Abies alba Mill.) and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in a mixed stand. J For Sci 50(4):149–160Google Scholar
  17. Kučera J (2003) Sap flow meter—P4.2, instruction manual. Producer EMS BrnoGoogle Scholar
  18. Kučera J (2007) Dendrometer increment sensor—DRL 26, user‘s manual. Výrobca EMS BrnoGoogle Scholar
  19. Lagergren F, Lindroth A (2002) Transpiration response to soil moisture in pine and spruce trees in Sweden. Agric For Meteorol 112:67–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lagergren F, Lindroth A (2004) Variation in sapflow and stem growth in relation to tree size, competition and thinning in a mixed forest of pine and spruce in Sweden. For Ecol Manag 188:51–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lichner Ľ, Hallett PD, Feeney DS, Ďugová O, Šír M, Tesař M (2007) Field measurement of soil water repellency and its impact on water flow under different vegetation. Biol 62:537–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Magová D, Střelcová K, Šudý M (2010) The changes of stem circumference and transpiration rate of spruce–larch forest by influence of environmental characteristics changes. Acta Fac For Tech Univ Zvolen 52(1):89–100Google Scholar
  23. Mäkinen H, Nöjd P, Saranpää P (2003) Seasonal changes in stem radius and production of new tracheids in Norway spruce. Tree Physiol 23:959–968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Matyssek R, Wieser G, Patzner K, Blaschke H, Häberle KH (2009) Transpiration of forest trees and stands at different altitude: consistencies rather than contrasts? Eur J For Res 128:579–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Moser L, Fonti P, Buntgen U, Esper J, Luterbacher J, Franzen J, Frank D (2010) Timing and duration of European Larch growing season along altitudinal gradients in the Swiss Alps. Tree Physiol 30(2):225–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nadezhdina N, Čermák J, Meiresonne L, Ceulemans R (2007) Transpiration of Scots pine in Flanders growing on soil with irregular substratum. For Ecol Manag 243:1–9Google Scholar
  27. Perämäki M, Nikinmaa E, Sevanto S, Ilvesniemi H, Siivola E, Hari P, Vesala T (2001) Tree stem diameter variations and transpiration in Scots pine: an analysis using a dynamic sap flow model. Tree Physiol 21:889–897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Perämäki M, Vesala T, Nikinmaa E (2005) Modeling the dynamics of pressure propagation and diameter variation in tree sapwood. Tree Physiol 25:1091–1099CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rossi S, Deslauriers A, Anfodillo T, Morin H, Saracino A, Motta R, Borghetti M (2006) Conifers in cold environments synchronize maximum growth rate of tree-ring formation with day length. N Phytol 170:301–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rossi S, Deslauriers A, Anfodillo T, Carraro V (2007) Evidence of threshold temperatures for xylogenesis in conifers at high altitudes. Oecol 152:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Savva YuV, Schweingruber FH, Vaganov EA, Milyutin LI (2003) Influence of climate changes on tree—ring characteristics of Scots pine provenances in southern Siberia (forest-steppe). IAWA J 24(4):371–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Schume H, Jost G, Hager H (2004) Soil water depletion and recharge patterns in mixed and pure forest stands of European beech and Norway spruce. J Hydrol 289:258–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Schume H, Hager H, Jost G (2005) Water and energy exchange above a mixed European Beech–Norway Spruce forest canopy: a comparison of eddy covariance against soil water depletion measurement. Theor Appl Climatol 81:87–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Schwalm CR, Williams CA, Schaefer K, Arneth A, Bonal D, Buchmann N, Chen J, Law BE, Lindroth A, Luyssaert S, Reichstein M, Richardson AD (2010) Assimilation exceeds respiration sensitivity to drought: A FLUXNET synthesis. Glob Chang Biol 16:657–670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sevanto S, Vesala T, Perämäki M, Nikinmaa E (2002) Time lags for xylem and stem diameter variations in a Scots pine tree. Plant Cell Environ 25:1071–1077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sevanto S, Hölttä T, Markkanen T, Perämäki M, Nikinmaa E, Vesala T (2005) Relationships between diurnal diameter variations and environmental factors in Scots pine. Boreal Environ Res 10:447–458Google Scholar
  37. Sevanto S, Nikinmaa E, Riikonen A, Daley M, Pettijohn JC, Mikkelsen TN, Phillips N, Holbrook NM (2008) Linking xylem diameter variations with sap flow measurements. Plant Soil 305:77–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Small EE, McConnell JR (2008) Comparison of soil moisture and meteorological controls on pine and spruce transpiration. Ecohydrol 1:205–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Střelcová K, Minďáš J (2002) Beech trees transpiration in relation to changing environmental conditions. Scientific Study 11/2000/A. Technical University in ZvolenGoogle Scholar
  40. Střelcová K, Priwitzer T, Minďáš J (2008) Phenological phases and transpiration of European Beech in the mountain mixed forest. Meteorol J 11:21–29Google Scholar
  41. Střelcová K, Kuřera J, Fleischer P, Giorgi S, Gömöryová E, Škvarenina J, Ditmarová Ľ (2009a) Canopy transpiration of mountain mixed forest as a function of environmental conditions in boundary layer. Biol 64:507–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Střelcová K, Mátyás C, Kleidon A, Lapin M., Matejka F, Blaženec M, Škvarenina J, Holécy J (eds) (2009) Bioclimatology and natural hazards. Springer, NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  43. Škvarenina J, Tomlain J, Hrvoľ J, Škvareninová J, Nejedlík P (2009) Progress in dryness and wetness parameters in altitudinal vegetation stages of West Carpathians: time-series analysis 1951–2007. Időjárás Q J Hung Meteorol Serv 113:47–54Google Scholar
  44. Tatarinov F, Kuřera J, Cienciala J (2005) The analysis of physical background of tree sap flow measurement based on thermal methods. Meas Sci Technol 16:1157–1169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zweifel R, Häsler R (2001) Dynamics of water storage in mature subalpine Picea abies: temporal and spatial patterns of change in stem radius. Tree Physiol 21:561–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zweifel R, Zimmermann L, Newbery DM (2005) Modeling tree water deficit from microclimate: an approach to quantifying drought stress. Tree Physiol 25:147–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katarína Střelcová
    • 1
    Email author
  • Dagmar Magová
    • 1
  • Peter Fleischer
    • 2
  • Erika Gömöryová
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Natural EnvironmentUniversity in ZvolenZvolenSlovakia
  2. 2.Research station of the Tatra National ParkTatranská LomnicaSlovakia

Personalised recommendations