Climate Trends in the Slovak Part of the Carpathians

  • Marián MeloEmail author
  • Milan Lapin
  • Hana Kapolková
  • Jozef Pecho
  • Anna Kružicová
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)


In this chapter, the temporal trends in air temperature and precipitation and territorial shifts in climate regions in Slovak part of the Carpathians during the twentieth century and at the beginning of the twenty first century are presented. The temperature series show an increasing trend at all meteorological stations in Slovakia. Climate has become warmer and more arid in the southern part of the Slovak Carpathians, particularly in the adjacent lowlands (e.g. the Danubian Lowland), while the northern part (the Orava Region) has become warmer and more humid (in terms of precipitation totals). Based on the Köppen and Konček climate classifications, climatic regions in Slovakia have been specified. According to these classifications, some shifts in climatic regions and sub-regions towards the higher altitudes and to the north were registered in Slovakia during this period. Selected results of the projection of climate change scenarios based on the outputs from General Circulation Models (GCMs) for the Slovak Carpathians up to 2100 are outlined. Scenarios based on three GCMs show further warming by 2–4 °C on this territory by the end of the twenty first century.


Climate Change Scenario Moisture Index Annual Precipitation Total Minimum Daily Temperature Climate Classification 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work was supported by the Grant Agency of the Slovak Republic under the Project VEGA No. 1/0063/10 and by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract No č. APVV–0015-10. In this chapter, we used model data from the Canadian Centre for Climate Modeling and Analysis in Victoria, B.C., from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies in New York, from the Met Office Hadley Centre in Exeter, UK and measured data from the Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute in Bratislava.


  1. Barry RG, Chorley RJ (2003) Atmosphere, weather and climate. Routledge London, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Bartholy J, Pongracz R, Gelybo GY (2007) Regional climate change expected in Hungary for 2071–2100. Appl Ecol Environ Res 5:1–17Google Scholar
  3. Blüthgen J, Weischet W (1980) Allgemeine Klimageographie. Walter de Gruyter, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Boer GJ, McFarlane NA, Lazare M (1992) Greenhouse gas-induced climate change simulated with the CCC second-generation general circulation model. J Clim 5:1045–1077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brázdil R, Budíková M, Faško P, Lapin M (1995) Fluctuation of maximum and minimum air temperatures in the Czech and the Slovak Republics. At Res 37:53–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brázdil R, Budíková M, Auer I, Böhm R, Cegnar T, Faško P, Lapin M, Gajic-Čapka M, Zaninovič K, Koleva E, Niedzwiedz T, Ustrnul Z, Szalai S, Weber RO (1996) Trends of maximum and minimum daily temperatures in Central and Southeastern Europe. Int J Climatol 16:765–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Flato GM, Boer GJ (2001) Warming asymmetry in climate change simulations. Geophys Res Lett 28:195–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. IPCC (2007) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCCGoogle Scholar
  9. Konček M (1955) Index zavlaženia. Meteorol Zpr 8:96–99Google Scholar
  10. Konček M (1964) Sketch of climatic conditions in Slovakia. Geogr Čas 16:160–184Google Scholar
  11. Konček M (1980) Climatic regions. In: Landscape atlas of the Slovak Republic. Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic, Slovak Environmental Agency, Bratislava-Banská BystricaGoogle Scholar
  12. Konček M, Petrovič Š (1957) Klimatické oblasti Československa. Meteorol Zpr 10:113–119Google Scholar
  13. Kottek M, Grieser J, Beck C, Rudolf B, Rubel F (2006) World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated. Meteorol Zeitschr 15:259–263Google Scholar
  14. Lapin M, Faško P (1994) Daily air temperature range and relative air humidity correlation at Hurbanovo. In: Brázdil R, Kolář M (eds) Contemporary climatology. Masarykova Univerzita, BrnoGoogle Scholar
  15. Lapin M, Melo M (1999) Climatic changes and climate change scenarios in Slovakia. Meteorol Čas 2(4):5–15Google Scholar
  16. Lapin M, Melo M (2004) Methods of climate change scenarios projection in Slovakia and selected results. J Hydrol Hydromech 52:224–238Google Scholar
  17. Lapin M, Damborská I, Melo M (2001) Downscaling of GCM outputs for precipitation time series in Slovakia. Meteorol Čas 4(3):29–40Google Scholar
  18. Lapin M, Faško P, Melo M, Šťastný P, Tomlain J (2002) Climatic regions. In: Landscape atlas of the Slovak Republic. Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic, Slovak Environmental Agency, Bratislava-Banská BystricaGoogle Scholar
  19. Lapin M, Damborská I, Drinka R, Gera M, Melo M (2006) Scenarios of climatic element daily values for Slovakia until 2100. Meteorol Čas 9:149–156Google Scholar
  20. McFarlane NA, Boer GJ, Blanchet JP, Lazare M (1992) The Canadian climate centre second-generation general circulation model and its equilibrium climate. J Clim 5:1013–1044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Melo M (2005) Warmer periods in the Slovak mountains according to analogue method and coupled GCM. Croat Meteorol J 40:589–592Google Scholar
  22. Melo M, Lapin M, Damborská I (2007) Končekov index zavlaženia ako možný indikátor aridizačných trendov v krajine. Acta Hydrol Slov 8:224–230Google Scholar
  23. Melo M, Lapin M, Damborská I (2009) Methods for the design of climate change scenario in Slovakia for the 21st century. Bull Geogr Phys Geogr Ser 1:77–90Google Scholar
  24. Murphy JM, Mitchell JFB (1995) Transient response of the Hadley Centre coupled ocean-atmosphere model to increasing carbon dioxide. Part II: spatial and temporal structure of response. J Clim 8:57–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Oliver JE (ed) (2008) Encyclopedia of world climatology. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  26. Robinson PJ, Henderson-Sellers A (1999) Contemporary climatology. Pearson Education Limited, HarlowGoogle Scholar
  27. Russell GL, Rind D (1999) Response to CO2 transient increase in the GISS coupled model: regional coolings in a warming climate. J Clim 12:531–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tolasz R (ed) (2007) Climate Atlas of Czechia. Univerzita Palackého, Olomouc, ČHMÚ PrahaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marián Melo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Milan Lapin
    • 1
  • Hana Kapolková
    • 2
  • Jozef Pecho
    • 3
  • Anna Kružicová
    • 4
  1. 1.Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and InformaticsComenius University in BratislavaBratislavaSlovakia
  2. 2.Slovak Hydrometeorological InstituteBratislavaSlovakia
  3. 3.Institute of Atmospheric PhysicsAcademy of Sciences of the Czech RepublicPragueCzech Republic
  4. 4.Ministry of Environment of the Slovak RepublicBratislavaSlovakia

Personalised recommendations