Advertisement

Integrated 3D Modeling of Multi-utility Networks and Their Interdependencies for Critical Infrastructure Analysis

Chapter
Part of the Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography book series (LNGC)

Abstract

In today’s technologically advanced society the dependency of every citizen and company on working infrastructures is extremely high. Failures of critical infrastructures, such as the Italian blackout in 2003 or the failure of power supply in wide parts of Europe in 2006, demonstrate the strong linkage of networks across borders. However, also infrastructures within the same geographic region but of different types have strong interdependencies and failures in one type of network can have cascading effects onto the other networks. In order to support risk analysis and planning of emergency response actions the modeling of critical infrastructures and their mutual dependencies in 3D space is required. Decision makers need a comprehensive view of the disaster situation to be able to estimate the consequences of their action. For this purpose, a comprehensive understanding and simulation of cascading or looping effects as well as the propagation of the disaster extend is needed. But neither the existing utility networks models nor the international standards for modeling cities or buildings map the mutual interrelationships between different infrastructures or between the city and its infrastructures.

In this paper the requirements and a novel framework for the integrated 3D modeling of critical infrastructures within cities is presented. By giving a dual representation utility network components are modeled both according to their 3D topography and by a complementary graph structure embedded into 3D space.

Keywords

Network Component Critical Infrastructure Interior Node Utility Network Open Geospatial Consortium 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The presented work was mainly carried out within the collaboration project “SIMKAS 3D” funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany. Additionally, we would like to thank the modeling group of the Special Interest Group 3D of the German National Spatial Data Infrastructure (GDI-DE) for the cooperation and fruitful discussions. We also thank Hartmut Lehmann for his help with the illustrations.

References

  1. T. Becker, C. Nagel, T. H. Kolbe (2010): UtilityNetworkADE – Core Model. Draft version. Online available at http://www.citygmlwiki.org/index.php/CityGML_UtilityNetworkADE, last access 7. 5. 2010.
  2. M. Bedford (2004): GIS for water management in Europe. ESRI Press, Redlands, CA.Google Scholar
  3. S. Cox, P. Daisy, R. Lake, C. Portele, A. Whiteside (2004): OpenGIS Geography Markup Language (GML) Implementation Specification V3.1.0, OGC Doc. No. 03-105r1.Google Scholar
  4. R. Diestel (2005): Graph theory. 3rd edition, Series on Graduate Texts in Mathematics 173, Springer, Berlin.Google Scholar
  5. D. Dudenhoefer, M. Permann, M. Manic (2006): CIMS: A Framework for Infrastructure Interdependency Modeling and Analysis. In: L. F. Perrone, F. P. Wieland, J. Liu, B. G. Lawson, D. M. Nicol, R. M. Fujimoto (eds.), Proceedings of the 38th Conference on Winter Simulation, Monterey, CA.Google Scholar
  6. ESRI (2003): ArcGIS Water Utility Data Model. Published by Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands, CA. Online available at http://www.downloads2.esri.com/resources/datamodels/ArcGISWaterUtilityDataModel.pdf, last access 13. 4. 2010.
  7. ESRI (2007): GIS Technology for Water, Wastewater, and Storm Water Utilities. Published by Environmental Systems Research Institute. Online available at www.esri.com/library/brochures/pdfs/water-wastewater.pdf.
  8. S. Grise, E. Idolyantes, E. Brinton, B. Booth, M. Zeiler (2001): Water Utilities. ArcGIS™ Data Models. Environmental Systems Research Institute. http://www.downloads2.esri.com/resources/datamodels/ArcGIS_Water_Utilities.zip, last access 13. 4. 2010.
  9. G. Gröger, T. H. Kolbe, A. Czerwinski, C. Nagel (2008): OpenGIS City Geography Markup Language (CityGML) Encoding Standard. Version: 1.0.0, OGC Doc. No. 08-007r1, Open Geospatial Consortium.Google Scholar
  10. J. Herring (2001): The OpenGIS Abstract Specification. Topic 1: Feature Geometry (ISO 19107 Spatial Schema). Version 5. OGC Doc. No. 01-101.Google Scholar
  11. I. Hijazi, M. Ehlers, S. Zlatanova, T. Becker, L. van Berlo (2010): Initial Investigations for Modeling Interior Utilities Within 3D Geo Context: Transforming IFC Interior Utility to CityGML UtilityNetworkADE. In: T. H. Kolbe, G. König, C. Nagel (eds.), Advances in 3D GeoInformation Science, LNG&C Series, Springer, Berlin (this book).Google Scholar
  12. INSPIRE Data Specifications Drafting Team (2009): INSPIRE Generic Conceptual Model (D2.5: Generic Conceptual Model, V3.2). Online available at http://www.inspire.jrc.ec.europa.eu/documents/Data_Specifications/D2.5_v3.2.pdf, last access 13.04.2010.
  13. INSPIRE Thematic Working Group Transport Networks (2009): D2.8.I.7 INSPIRE Data Specification on Transport Networks – Guidelines. Online http://www.inspire.jrc.ec.europa.eu/documents/Data_Specifications/INSPIRE_DataSpecification_TN_v3.0.pdf, last access 13.04.2010.
  14. ISO/TC 211 (2008): Geographic Information – Rules for application schema. ISO 19109:2005. International Organization for Standardization (ISO).Google Scholar
  15. C. W. Johnson (2007): Analysing the Causes of the Italian and Swiss Blackout, 28th September 2003. In: T. Cant (ed.), Proceedings of the 12th Australian Conference on Safety-Related Programmable Systems (SCS 2007), Adelaide, Australia (30–31 August 2007), Conferences Research and Practice in Information Technology (CRPIT) Vol. 86, pp 21–30.Google Scholar
  16. R. Klein (2009): Information Modelling and Simulation in Large Dependent Critical Infrastructures. An Overview on the European Integrated Project IRRIIS. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Critical Information Infrastructures Security, CRITIS 2008, Rome, Italy, October 13–15, 2008, LNCS 5508, Springer, Berlin.Google Scholar
  17. R. Klein, E. Rome, C. Beyel, R. Linnemann, W. Reinhardt, A. Usov (2009): Information Modelling and Simulation in Large Interdependent Critical Infrastructures in IRRIIS. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Critical Information Infrastructures Security, CRITIS 2008, Rome, Italy, October 13–15, 2008, LNCS 5508, Springer, Berlin.Google Scholar
  18. J. -C. Laprie, K. Kanoun, M. Kaâniche (2007): Modelling Interdependencies Between the Electricity and Information Infrastructures. In: Proceedings of the Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security. 26th International Conference on SAFECOMP 2007, Nuremberg, Germany, September 18–21, 2007, LNCS 4680, Springer, Berlin.Google Scholar
  19. T. Liebich (2009): IFC 2x Edition 3. Model Implementation Guide. Version 2.0. AEC3 Ltd. Online from http://www.iai-tech.org, last access 13. 4. 2010.
  20. B. Meehan (2007): Empowering electric and gas utilities with GIS. Series on Case Studies in GIS, ESRI Press, Redlands, CA.Google Scholar
  21. P. Pederson, D. Dudenhoefer, S. Hartley, M. Permann (2006): Critical Infrastructure Interdependency Modeling. A Survey of U.S. and International Research. Published by Idaho National Laboratory, US Department of Energy (INL/EXT-06-11464).Google Scholar
  22. R. Setola, S. Geretshuber (eds.) (2008): Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Critical Information Infrastructures Security, CRITIS 2008, Rome, Italy, October 13–15, 2008, LNCS 5508, Springer, Berlin.Google Scholar
  23. W. J. Tolone, D. Wilson, A. Raja, W. Xiang, H. Hao, S. Phelps, E. W. Johnson (2004): Critical Infrastructure Integration Modeling and Simulation. In: Proceedings of the 2nd Symposium on Intelligence and Security Informatics, ISI 2004, Tucson, AZ, USA, June 10–11, 2004, LNCS 3073, Springer, Berlin.Google Scholar
  24. A. Usov, C. Beyel (2008): Simulating Interdependent Critical Infrastructures with SimCIP. In: ECN und European CIIP Newsletter. Online available at http://www.irriis.org/ecn/SimCIP_Usov_Beyel.pdf, last access 27. 4. 2010.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Geodesy and Geoinformation ScienceTechnische Universität BerlinBerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations