Advertisement

To Beat or Not to Beat: Beat Gestures in Direction Giving

  • Mariët Theune
  • Chris J. Brandhorst
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5934)

Abstract

Research on gesture generation for embodied conversational agents (ECA’s) mostly focuses on gesture types such as pointing and iconic gestures, while ignoring another gesture type frequently used by human speakers: beat gestures. Analysis of a corpus of route descriptions showed that although annotators show very low agreement in applying a ‘beat filter’ aimed at identifying physical features of beat gestures, they are capable of reliably distinguishing beats from other gestures in a more intuitive manner. Beat gestures made up more than 30% of the gestures in our corpus, and they were sometimes used when expressing concepts for which other gesture types seemed a more obvious choice. Based on these findings we propose a simple, probabilistic model of beat production for ECA’s. However, it is clear that more research is needed to determine why direction givers in some cases use beats when other gestures seem more appropriate, and vice versa.

Keywords

gesture and speech gesture analysis beats direction giving 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Iverson, J., Goldin-Meadow, S.: Why people gesture when they speak. Nature 396, 228 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    McNeill, D.: Hand and Mind: What Gestures Reveal about Thought. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago (1992)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Striegnitz, K., Tepper, P., Lovett, A., Cassell, J.: Knowledge representation for generating locating gestures in route directions. In: Coventry, K., Tenbrink, T., Bateman, J. (eds.) Spatial Language in Dialogue, pp. 147–166. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kopp, S., Tepper, P., Striegnitz, K., Ferriman, K., Cassell, J.: Trading spaces: How humans and humanoids use speech and gesture to give directions. In: Nishida, T. (ed.) Engineering Approaches to Conversational Informatics, pp. 133–160. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Theune, M., Hofs, D., van Kessel, M.: The Virtual Guide: A direction giving embodied conversational agent. In: Proceedings of Interspeech, pp. 2197–2200 (2007)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cassell, J., Vilhjálmsson, H., Bickmore, T.: BEAT: the Behavior Expression Animation Toolkit. In: Proceedings of SIGGRAPH, pp. 477–486 (2001)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hartmann, B., Mancini, M., Pelachaud, C.: Formational parameters and adaptive prototype instantiation for MPEG-4 compliant gesture synthesis. In: Proceedings of Computer Animation 2002, pp. 111–119. IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nakano, Y.I., Okamoto, M., Nishida, T.: Enriching agent animations with gestures and highlighting effects. In: Intelligent Media Technology for Communicative Intelligence, pp. 91–98 (2004)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Olivier, P., Jackson, D., Wiggins, C.: A real-world architecture for the synthesis of spontaneous gesture. In: Proceedings of the 19th annual conference on Computer Animation and Social Agents, CASA (2006)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Neff, M., Kipp, M., Albrecht, I., Seidel, H.P.: Gesture modeling and animation based on a probabilistic re-creation of speaker style. ACM Transactions on Graphics 27(5), 1–24 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bergmann, K., Kopp, S.: Increasing the expressiveness of virtual agents – autonomous generation of speech and gesture for spatial description tasks. In: Proceedings of AAMAS, pp. 361–368 (2009)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    DiEugenio, B.: In the usage of Kappa to evaluate agreement on coding tasks. In: Proceedings LREC, pp. 441–444 (2000)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Williams, S., Watson, C.: A profile of the discourse and intonational structure of route descriptions. In: Proceedings of Eurospeech, pp. 1659–1662 (1999)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Krauss, R.M.: Why do we gesture when we speak? Current Directions in Psychological Science 7, 54–59 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Duncan, S.: Some signals and rules for taking speaking turns in conversation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 23(2), 161–180 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kelleher, J.D., Costello, F.J.: Applying computational models of spatial prepositions to visually situated dialog. Computational Linguistics 35(2), 271–306 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mariët Theune
    • 1
  • Chris J. Brandhorst
    • 1
  1. 1.Human Media InteractionUniversity of TwenteEnschedeThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations