Advertisement

Occupational Exposure to Urban Airborne Particulate Matter: A Review on Environmental Monitoring and Health Effects

  • Ivo IavicoliEmail author
  • Veruscka Leso
  • Luca Fontana
  • Antonio Bergamaschi
Chapter
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)

Abstract

Airborne particulate matter (PM) is a complex chemical mixture of extremely small solid particles and liquid droplets that can derive from both natural and anthropogenic sources (USEPA 2008; Vedal and Sullivan 2007).

Keywords

PM10 Concentration Taxi Driver PM10 Level Road Traffic Noise Urban Worker 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Adams HS, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Colvile RN, McMullen MA, Khandelwal P (2001) Fine particle (PM2.5) personal exposure levels in transport microenvironments, London, UK. Sci Total Environ 279:29–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alfaro-Moreno E, Nawrot TS, Nemmar A, Nemery B (2007) Particulate matter in the environment: pulmonary and cardiovascular effects. Curr Opin Pulm Med 13:98–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Almeida S, Farinha M, Ventura M, Pio C, Freitas M, Reis M, Trancoso M (2007) Measuring air particulate matter in large urban areas for health effect assessment. Water Air Soil Pollut 179:43–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson HR, Bremner SA, Atkinson RW, Harrison RM, Walters S (2001) Particulate matter and daily mortality and hospital admissions in the west midlands conurbation of the United Kingdom: associations with fine and coarse particles, black smoke and sulphate. Occup Environ Med 58:504–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Asmi E, Antola M, Yli-Tuomi T, Jantunen M, Aarnio P, Mäkelä T, Hillamo R, Hämeri K (2009) Driver and passenger exposure to aerosol particles in buses and trams in Helsinki, Finland. Sci Total Environ 407:2860–2867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Babisch W (2006) Transportation noise and cardiovascular risk: updated review and synthesis of epidemiological studies indicate that the evidence has increased. Noise Health 8:1–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Babisch W (2008) Road traffic noise and cardiovascular risk. Noise Health 10:27–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bae H, Yang W, Chung M (2004) Indoor and outdoor concentrations of RSP, NO2 and selected volatile organic compounds at 32 shoe stalls located near busy roadways in Seoul, Korea. Sci Total Environ 323:99–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barregard L, Bonde E, Ohrström E (2009) Risk of hypertension from exposure to road traffic noise in a population-based sample. Occup Environ Med 66:410–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barrowcliffe R, Newton A, Harrison R, Jones A (2002) Sources of particulate matter in urban areas: TRAMAQ Project UG 250. Department for Transport, Environmental Resources Management, LondonGoogle Scholar
  11. Beelen R, Hoek G, Houthuijs D, van den Brandt PA, Goldbohm RA, Fischer P, Schouten LJ, Armstrong B, Brunekreef B (2009) The joint association of air pollution and noise from road traffic with cardiovascular mortality in a cohort study. Occup Environ Med 66:243–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Binkova B, Chvatalova I, Lnenickova Z, Milcova A, Tulupova E, Farmer PB, Sram RJ (2007) PAH-DNA adducts in environmentally exposed population in relation to metabolic and DNA repair gene polymorphisms. Mutat Res 620:49–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Björk J, Ardö J, Stroh E, Lövkvist H, Ostergren PO, Albin M (2006) Road traffic noise in southern Sweden and its relation to annoyance, disturbance of daily activities and health. Scand J Work Environ Health 32:392–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bodin T, Albin M, Ardö J, Stroh E, Ostergren PO, Björk J (2009) Road traffic noise and hypertension: results from a cross-sectional public health survey in southern Sweden. Environ Health 8:38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brook RD (2008) Cardiovascular effects of air pollution. Clin Sci 115:175–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brook RD, Franklin B, Cascio W, Hong Y, Howard G, Lipsett M, Luepker R, Mittleman M, Samet J, Smith SC Jr, Tager I (2004) Expert Panel on Population and Prevention Science of the American Heart Association. Air pollution and cardiovascular disease: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Expert Panel on Population and Prevention Science of the American Heart Association. Circulation 109:2655–2671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brook RD, Urch B, Dvonch JT, Bard RL, Speck M, Keeler G, Morishita M, Marsik FJ, Kamal AS, Kaciroti N, Harkema J, Corey P, Silverman F, Gold DR, Wellenius G, Mittleman MA, Rajagopalan S, Brook JR (2009) Insights into the mechanisms and mediators of the effects of air pollution exposure on blood pressure and vascular function in healthy humans. Hypertension 54:659–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brunekreef B, Forsberg B (2005) Epidemiological evidence of effects of coarse airborne particles on health. Eur Respir J 26:309–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Burnett RT, Goldberg MS (2003) Size fractionated particulate mass and daily mortality in 8 Canadian cities. In: Health Effects Institute, special report. Revised analyses of time-series studies of air pollution and health, pp 85–89Google Scholar
  20. Burnett RT, Cakmak S, Brook JR, Krewski D (1997) The role of particulate size and chemistry in the association between summertime ambient air pollution and hospitalization for cardiorespiratory diseases. Environ Health Perspect 105:614–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Burnett RT, Smith-Doiron M, Stieb D, Cakmak S, Brook JR (1999) Effects of particulate and gaseous air pollution on cardiorespiratory hospitalizations. Arch Environ Health 54:130–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Burnett RT, Brook J, Dann T, Delocla C, Philips O, Cakmak S et al (2000) Association between particulate- and gas-phase components of urban air pollution and daily mortality in eight Canadian cities. Inhal Toxicol 12:15–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Castillejos M, Borja-Aburto VH, Dockery DW, Gold DR, Loomis D (2000) Airborne coarse particles and mortality. Inhal Toxicol 12(Suppl. 1):61–72Google Scholar
  24. Chen Y, Yang Q, Krewski D, Shi Y, Burnett RT, McGrail K (2004) Influence of relatively low level of particulate ar pollution on hospitalization for COPD in elderly people. Inhal Toxicol 16:21–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chen Y, Yang Q, Krewski D, Burnett RT, Shi Y, McGrail KM (2005) The effect of coarse ambient particulate matter on first, second, and overall hospital admissions for respiratory disease among the elderly. Inhal Toxicol 17:649–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cifuentes LA, Vega J, Köpfer K, Lave LB (2000) Effect of the fine fraction of particulate matter versus the coarse mass and other pollutants on daily mortality in Santiago, Chile. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 50:1287–1298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Committee on the Medical Effects of Air Pollutants (COMEAP) (1998) The quantification of the effects of air pollution on health in the United Kingdom. http://www.doh.gov.uk.htmlx
  28. Davis ME, Blicharz AP, Hart JE, Laden F, Garshick E, Smith TJ (2007a) Occupational exposure to volatile organic compounds and aldehydes in the U.S. trucking industry. Environ Sci Technol 41:7152–7158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Davis ME, Smith TJ, Laden F, Hart JE, Blicharz AP, Reaser P, Garshick E (2007b) Driver exposure to combustion particles in the U.S. trucking industry. J Occup Environ Hyg 4:848–854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. de Kluizenaar Y, Gansevoort RT, Miedema HM, de Jong PE (2007) Hypertension and road traffic noise exposure. J Occup Environ Med 49:484–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. De Sio S, Rosati MV, Cherubini E, Ciarrocca M, Baccolo TP, Grimaldi F, Caciari T, Tomao E, Tomei F (2005) Occupational exposure to urban pollutants and plasma insulin. Saudi Med J 26:416–420Google Scholar
  32. Dockery DW, Pope CA (1993) An association between air pollution and mortality in six U.S. cities. N Engl J Med 329:1753–1759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dominici F, Peng RD, Bell ML, Pham L, McDermott A, Zeger SL, Samet JM (2006) Fine particulate air pollution and hospital admission for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. JAMA 295:1127–1134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Donaldson K, Li XY, MacNee W (1998) Ultrafine (nanometre) particle mediated lung injury. J Aerosol Sci 29:553–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Environmental Protection Department of the Government of the Hong Kong (1996) Air quality in Hong Kong 1995. Environmental Protection Department of the Government of the Hong Kong, Hong KongGoogle Scholar
  36. European Union Council Directive (1999) 1999/30/EC of 22 April 1999 relating to limit values for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter and lead in ambient airGoogle Scholar
  37. European Union Council Directive (2008) 2008/50/EC of 21 May 2008 on ambient air quality and cleaner air for EuropeGoogle Scholar
  38. Evans GW (2001) Environmental stress and health. In: Baum A, Revenson T, Singer JE (eds) Handbook of health psychology. Erlbaum, Mahwah, pp 365–385Google Scholar
  39. Fairley D (1999) Daily mortality and air pollution in Santa Clara County, California: 1989–1996. Environ Health Perspect 107:637–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ferin J, Oberdörster G, Penney DP (1992) Pulmonary retention of ultrafine and fine particles in rats. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 6:535–542Google Scholar
  41. Gamble JF, Lewis RJ (1996) Health and respirable particulate (PM10) air pollution: a causal or statistical association? Environ Health Perspect 104:838–850Google Scholar
  42. Garshick E, Laden F, Hart JE, Rosner B, Davis ME, Eisen EA, Smith TJ (2008) Lung cancer and vehicle exhaust in trucking industry workers. Environ Health Perspect 116:1327–1332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gavett SH, Koren HS (2001) The role of particulate matter in exacerbation of atopic asthma. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 124:109–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gericke C, Hanke B, Beckmann G, Baltes MM, Kühl KP, Neubert D (2001) Multicenter field trial on possible health effects of toluene. III. Evaluation of effects after long-term exposure. Toxicology 168:185–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gil L, Martínez V, Riquelme R, Ancic P, González G, Rodríguez L, Adonis M (2003) Occupational and environmental levels of mutagenic PAHs and respirable particulate matter associated with diesel exhaust in Santiago, Chile. J Occup Environ Med 45:984–992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Griefahn B, Bröde P, Marks A, Basner M (2008) Autonomic arousals related to traffic noise during sleep. Sleep 31:569–577Google Scholar
  47. Guillemin MP, Herrera H, Huynh CK, Droz PO, Vu Duc T (1992) Occupational exposure of truck drivers to dust and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons: a pilot study in Geneva, Switzerland. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 63:439–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Han X, Aguilar-Villalobos M, Allen J, Carlton CS, Robinson R, Bayer C, Naeher LP (2005) Traffic-related occupational exposures to PM2.5, CO, and VOCs in Trujillo, Peru. Int J Occup Environ Health 11:276–288Google Scholar
  49. Hauck H, Berner A, Frischer T, Gomiscek B, Kundi M, Neuberger M, Puxbaum H, Preining O (2004) AUPHEP: Austrian project on health effects of particulates: general overview. Atmos Environ 38:3905–3915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Health Effects Institute (2003) Revised analyses of the national morbidity, mortality, and air pollution study, part II: revised analyses of selected time-series studies of air pollution and health. Health Effects Institute, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  51. Hoek G, Dockery DW, Pope A, Neas L, Roemer W, Brunekreef B (1998) Association between PM10 and decrements in peak expiratory flow rates in children: reanalysis of data from five panel studies. Eur Respir J 1:1307–1311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Höhr D, Steinfartz Y, Schins RP, Knaapen AM, Martra G, Fubini B, Borm PJ (2002) The surface area rather than the surface coating determines the acute inflammatory response after instillation of fine and ultrafine TiO2 in the rat. Int J Hyg Environ Health 205:239–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hopke PK, Rossner A (2006) Exposure to airborne particulate matter in the ambient, indoor, and occupational environments. Clin Occup Environ Med 5:747–771Google Scholar
  54. Host S, Larrieu S, Pascal L, Blanchard M, Declercq C, Fabre P, Jusot JF, Chardon B, Le Tertre A, Wagner V, Prouvost H, Lefranc A (2008) Short-term associations between fine and coarse particles and hospital admissions for cardiorespiratory diseases in six French cities. Occup Environ Med 65:544–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hu Y, Bai Z, Zhang L, Wang X, Yu Q, Zhu T (2007) Health risk assessment for traffic policemen exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Tianjin, China. Sci Total Environ 382:240–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Iavicoli I, Bocca B, Petrucci F, Senofonte O, Carelli G, Alimonti A, Caroli S (2004) Biomonitoring of traffic police officers exposed to airborne platinum. Occup Environ Med 61:636–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Iavicoli I, Bocca B, Carelli G, Caroli S, Caimi S, Alimonti A, Fontana L (2007) Biomonitoring of tram drivers exposed to airborne platinum, rhodium and palladium. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 81:109–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Iavicoli I, Bocca B, Caroli S, Caimi S, Alimonti A, Carelli G, Fontana L (2008a) Exposure of Rome city tram drivers to airborne platinum, rhodium, and palladium. J Occup Environ Med 50:1158–1166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Iavicoli I, Carelli G, Bocca B, Caimi S, Fontana L, Alimonti A (2008b) Environmental and biological monitoring of iridium in the city of Rome. Chemosphere 71:568–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ingle ST, Pachpande BG, Wagh ND, Patel VS, Attarde SB (2005) Exposure to vehicular pollution and respiratory impairment of traffic policemen in Jalgaon City, India. Ind Health 43:656–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ising H, Kruppa B (2007) Stress effects of noise. In: Luxon L, Prasher D (eds) Noise and its effects. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  62. Ito K (2003) Association of particulate matter components with daily mortality and morbidity in Detroit, Michigan. In: Health Effects Institute, special report. Revised analyses of time-series studies of air pollution and health, pp 143–156Google Scholar
  63. Jinsart W, Tamura K, Loetkamonwit S, Thepanondh S, Karita K, Yano E (2002) Roadside particulate air pollution in Bangkok. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 52:1102–1110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Jones AY, Lam PK, Dean E (2006) Respiratory health of bus drivers in Hong Kong. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 79:414–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Jones AY, Lam PK, Gohel MD (2008) Respiratory health of road-side vendors in a large industrialized city. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 15:150–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kan H, London SJ, Chen G, Zhang Y, Song G, Zhao N, Jiang L, Chen B (2007) Differentiating the effects of fine and coarse particles on daily mortality in Shanghai, China. Environ Int 33:376–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Karita K, Yano E, Jinsart W, Boudoung D, Tamura K (2001) Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function among traffic police in Bangkok, Thailand. Arch Environ Health 56:467–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Karita K, Yano E, Tamura K, Jinsart W (2004) Effects of working and residential location areas on air pollution related respiratory symptoms in policemen and their wives in Bangkok, Thailand. Eur J Public Health 14:24–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Klemm RJ, Mason RM Jr (2000) Aerosol Research and Inhalation Epidemiological Study (ARIES): air quality and daily mortality statistical modeling-interim results. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 50:1433–1439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Klemm RJ, Mason RM Jr, Heilig CM, Neas LM, Dockery DW (2000) Is daily mortality associated specifically with fine particles? Data reconstruction and replication of analyses. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 50:1215–1222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kotseva K, Popov T (1998) Study of the cardiovascular effects of occupational exposure to organic solvents. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 71(Suppl):S87–S91Google Scholar
  72. Kreyling WG, Semmler M, Erbe F, Mayer P, Takenaka S, Schulz H, Oberdörster G, Ziesenis A (2002) Translocation of ultrafine insoluble iridium particles from lung epithelium to extrapulmonary organs is size dependent but very low. J Toxicol Environ Health A 65:1513–1530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Laden F, Hart JE, Smith TJ, Davis ME, Garshick E (2007) Cause-specific mortality in the unionized U.S. trucking industry. Environ Health Perspect 115:1192–1196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Leon Bluhm G, Berglind N, Nordling E, Rosenlund M (2007) Road traffic noise and hypertension. Occup Environ Med 64:122–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lewné M, Nise G, Lind ML, Gustavsson P (2006) Exposure to particles and nitrogen dioxide among taxi, bus and lorry drivers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 79:220–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lewné M, Plato N, Gustavsson P (2007) Exposure to particles, elemental carbon and nitrogen dioxide in workers exposed to motor exhaust. Ann Occup Hyg 51:693–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lighty JS, Veranth JM, Sarofirm AF (2000) Combustion aerosols: factors governing their size and composition and implications to human health. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 50:1565–1618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lin M, Chen Y, Burnett RT, Villeneuve PJ, Krewski D (2002) The influence of ambient coarse particulate matter on asthma hospitalization in children: case-crossover and time-series analyses. Environ Health Perspect 110:575–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lipfert FW, Morris SC, Wyzga RE (2000) Daily mortality in the Philadelphia metropolitan area and size-classified particulate matter. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 50:1501–1513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lippmann M, Ito K, Nádas A, Burnett RT (2000) Association of particulate matter components with daily mortality and morbidity in urban populations. Res Rep Health Eff Inst 95:5–72; discussion 73–82Google Scholar
  81. Lipsett MJ, Tsai FC, Roger L, Woo M, Ostro BD (2006) Coarse particles and heart rate variability among older adults with coronary artery disease in the Coachella Valley, California. Environ Health Perspect 114:1215–1220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Lükewille A, Bertok I, Amann M, Cofala J, Gyarfas F, Johansson M, Klimont Z, Pacyna E, Pacyna J (2001) A module to calculate primary particulate matter emissions and abatement measures in Europe. Water Air Soil Pollut 130:229–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Maffei F, Hrelia P, Angelini S, Carbone F, Cantelli Forti G, Barbieri A, Sanguinetti G, Mattioli S, Violante FS (2005) Effects of environmental benzene: micronucleus frequencies and haematological values in traffic police working in an urban area. Mutat Res 583:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Maître A, Soulat JM, Masclet P, Stoklov M, Marquès M, de Gaudemaris R (2002) Exposure to carcinogenic air pollutants among policemen working close to traffic in an urban area. Scand J Work Environ Health 28:402–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Mar TF, Norris GA, Koenig JQ, Larson TV (2000) Associations between air pollution and mortality in Phoenix, 1995–1997. Environ Health Perspect 108:347–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Mar TF, Norris GA, Larson TV, Wilson WE, Koenig JQ (2003) Air pollution and cardiovascular mortality in Phoenix, 1995–1997. In: Health Effects Institute, special report. Revised analyses of time-series studies of air pollution and health, pp 177–182Google Scholar
  87. Maschke C, Hecht K (2007) Stress and noise—the psychological/physiological perspective and current limitations. In: Luxon L, Prasher D (eds) Noise and its effects. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  88. McCarthy JE (2006) Congressional Research Service report for congress. Clean Air Act issues in the 109th congressGoogle Scholar
  89. Michaud DS, Keith SE, McMurchy D (2008) Annoyance and disturbance of daily activities from road traffic noise in Canada. J Acoust Soc Am 123:784–792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Michelozzi P, Forastiere F, Fusco D, Peducci CA, Ostro B, Ancona C, Pallotti G (1998) Air pollution and daily mortality in Rome, Italy. Occup Environ Med 55:605–610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Mills NL, Donaldson K, Hadoke PW, Boon NA, MacNee W, Cassee FR, Sandström T, Blomberg A, Newby DE (2009) Adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution. Nat Clin Pract Cardiovasc Med 6:36–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Mucke W, Jost D, Rudolph W (1984) Luftverunreinigungen in Kraftfahrzeugen. Staub Reinh Luft 44:374–377Google Scholar
  93. Ng SL, Lam KC (2001) Respiratory suspended particulate (RSP) concentration and its implications to roadside workers: a case study of Hong Kong. Environ Monit Assess 72:235–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Ostro BD, Broadwin R, Lipsett MJ (2000) Coarse and fine particles and daily mortality in the Coachella Valley, California: a follow-up study. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 10:412–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Palli D, Saieva C, Munnia A, Peluso M, Grechi D, Zanna I, Caini S, Decarli A, Sera F, Masala G (2008) DNA adducts and PM(10) exposure in traffic-exposed workers and urban residents from the EPIC-Florence City study. Sci Total Environ 403:105–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Peng RD, Chang HH, Bell ML, McDermott A, Zeger SL, Samet JM, Dominici F (2008) Coarse particulate matter air pollution and hospital admissions for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases among Medicare patients. JAMA 299:2172–2179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Penttinen P, Timonen K, Tiittanen P, Mirme A, Ruuskanen J, Pekkanen J (2001) Ultrafine particles in urban air and respiratory health among adult asthmatics. Eur Respir J 17:428–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Perez L, Medina-Ramón M, Künzli N, Alastuey A, Pey J, Pérez N, Garcia R, Tobias A, Querol X, Sunyer J (2009) Size fractionate particulate matter, vehicle traffic, and case-specific daily mortality in Barcelona, Spain. Environ Sci Technol 43:4707–4714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Pfeifer GD, Harrison RM, Lynam DR (1999) Personal exposures to airborne metals in London taxi drivers and office workers in 1995 and 1996. Sci Total Environ 235:253–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Piercecchi-Marti MD, Leonetti G, Pelissier AL, Conrath J, Cianfarani F, Valli M (1999) Evaluation of biological stress markers in police officers. Med Law 18:125–144Google Scholar
  101. Polichetti G, Cocco S, Spinali A, Trimarco V, Nunziata A (2009) Effects of particulate matter (PM(10), PM(2.5) and PM(1)) on the cardiovascular system. Toxicology 261:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Pope CA III (1991) Respiratory hospital admissions associated with PM10 pollution in Utah, Salt Lake, and Cache Valleys. Arch Environ Health 46:90–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Pope CA III (2000) Epidemiology of fine particulate air pollution and human health: biologic mechanisms and who’s at risk? Environ Health Perspect 108:713–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Pope CA III, Dockery DW (2006) Health effects of fine particulate air pollution: lines that connect. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 56:709–742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Pope CA III, Burnett RT, Thun MJ, Calle EE, Krewski D, Ito K, Thurston GD (2002) Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution. JAMA 287:1132–1141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Praml G, Schierl R (2000) Dust exposure in Munich public transportation: a comprehensive 4-year survey in buses and trams. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 73:209–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Puri VN (1999) Cadmium induced hypertension. Clin Exp Hypertens 21:79–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. QUARG (1993) Airborne particulate matter in the United Kingdom. Quality of Urban Air Review Group, Institute of Public and Environmental Health, The University of BirminghamGoogle Scholar
  109. Riediker M (2007) Cardiovascular effects of fine particulate matter components in highway patrol officers. Inhal Toxicol 19(Suppl 1):99–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Riediker M, Williams R, Devlin R, Griggs T, Bromberg P (2003) Exposure to particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, and other air pollutants inside patrol cars. Environ Sci Technol 37:2084–2093CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Riediker M, Cascio WE, Griggs TR, Herbst MC, Bromberg PA, Neas L, Williams RW, Devlin RB (2004a) Particulate matter exposure in cars is associated with cardiovascular effects in healthy young men. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 169:934–940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Riediker M, Devlin RB, Griggs TR, Herbst MC, Bromberg PA, Williams RW, Cascio WE (2004b) Cardiovascular effects in patrol officers are associated with fine particulate matter from brake wear and engine emissions. Part Fibre Toxicol 1:2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Rohbock E, Muller H (1980) Messung von schwebstaubgebundem Blei und anderer Metalle innerhalb von fahrenden Personenkraftwagen. Gesundheitsingenieur 101:270–274Google Scholar
  114. Russell AG, Brunekreef B (2009) A focus on particulate matter and health. Environ Sci Technol 43:4620–4625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Schuhmacher M, Bosque MA, Domingo JL, Corbella J (1994) Effects of chronic lead and cadmium exposure on blood pressure in occupationally exposed workers. Biol Trace Elem Res 41:269–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Schwartz J (1993) Particulate air pollution and chronic respiratory disease. Environ Res 62:7–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Schwartz J, Dockery DW, Neas LM (1996) Is daily mortality associated specifically with fine particles? J Air Waste Manag Assoc 46:927–939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Schwartz J, Norris G, Larson T, Sheppard L, Claiborne C, Koenig J (1999) Episodes of high coarse particle concentrations are not associated with increased mortality. Environ Health Perspect 107:339–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Selander J, Nilsson ME, Bluhm G, Rosenlund M, Lindqvist M, Nise G, Pershagen G (2009) Long-term exposure to road traffic noise and myocardial infarction. Epidemiology 20:272–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Sheppard L, Levy D, Norris G, Larson TV, Koenig JQ (1999) Effects of ambient air pollution on non elderly asthma hospital admissions in Seattle, Washington, 1987–1994. Epidemiology 10:23–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Smith TJ, Davis ME, Reaser P, Natkin J, Hart JE, Laden F, Heff A, Garshick E (2006) Overview of particulate exposures in the US trucking industry. J Environ Monit 8:711–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Sokhi RS (2005) Fourth international conference on urban air quality-measurement, modelling and management, 25–28 March 2003, Prague, Czech Republic. Atmos Environ 39:2695–2696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Tamura K, Jinsart W, Yano E, Karita K, Boudoung D (2003) Particulate air pollution and chronic respiratory symptoms among traffic policemen in Bangkok. Arch Environ Health 58:201–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Tomei F, Rosati MV, Baccolo TP, Bernardini A, Ciarrocca M, Tomao E (2003) Plasma concentration of adrenocorticotropic hormone in traffic policemen. J Occup Health 45:242–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Tomei F, Rosati MV, Baccolo TP, Cherubini E, Ciarrocca M, Caciari T, Tomao E (2004) Ambulatory (24 hour) blood pressure monitoring in police officers. J Occup Health 46:235–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Tomei G, Ciarrocca M, Capozzella A, Fiaschetti M, Tomao E, Cangemi C, Rosati MV, Cerratti D, Anzani MF, Pimpinella B, Monti C, Tomei F (2008) Hemopoietic system in traffic police exposed to urban stressors. Ind Health 46:298–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Tomei G, Tomao E, Ciarrocca M, Rosati MV, Caciari T, Gamberale D, Palermo P, De Sio S, Tria M, Panfili A, Tomei F (2009) Follicle-stimulating hormone levels in male workers exposed to urban chemical, physical, and psychosocial stressors. Toxicol Ind Health 25:395–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. United States Environmental Protection Agency U.S. EPA (1997) The benefits and costs of the clean air act, 1970 to 1990. Office of Air and Radiation, EPA 410-R-97-002Google Scholar
  129. United States Environmental Protection Agency U.S. EPA’s (2008) Report on the environment (final report). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-07/045F (NTIS PB2008-112484)Google Scholar
  130. Valavanidis A, Fiotakis K, Vlachogianni T (2008) Airborne particulate matter and human health: toxicological assessment and importance of size and composition of particles for oxidative damage and carcinogenic mechanisms. J Environ Sci Health C 26:339–362Google Scholar
  131. van Kempen EE, Kruize H, Boshuizen HC, Ameling CB, Staatsen BA, de Hollander AE (2002) The association between noise exposure and blood pressure and ischemic heart disease: a meta-analysis. Environ Health Perspect 110:307–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Vedal S (1997) Ambient particles and health: lines that divide. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 47:551–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Vedal S, Sullivan J (2007) Particulate matter. In: Rom WN, Markowitz SB (eds) Environmental and occupational medicine. Wolters Kluwer-Lippicott Williams and Wilkins, New York, pp 1487–1506Google Scholar
  134. Villeneuve PJ, Burnett RT, Shi Y, Krewski D, Goldberg MS, Hertzman C, Chen Y, Brook J (2003) A time-series study of air pollution, socioeconomic status, and mortality in Vancouver, Canada. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 13:427–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Violante FS, Barbieri A, Curti S, Sanguinetti G, Graziosi F, Mattioli S (2006) Urban atmospheric pollution: personal exposure versus fixed monitoring station measurements. Chemosphere 64:1722–1729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Volpino P, Tomei F, La Valle C, Tomao E, Rosati MV, Ciarrocca M, De Sio S, Cangemi B, Vigliarolo R, Fedele F (2004) Respiratory and cardiovascular function at rest and during exercise testing in a healthy working population: effects of outdoor traffic air pollution. Occup Med (Lond) 54:475–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Wagner J, Cik M, Marth E, Santner BI, Gallasch E, Lackner A, Raggam RB (2010) Feasibility of testing three salivary stress biomarkers in relation to naturalistic traffic noise exposure. Int J Hyg Environ Health 213:153–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Watt M, Godden D, Cherrie J, Seaton A (1995) Individual exposure to particulate air pollution and its relevance to thresholds for health effects: a study of traffic wardens. Occup Environ Med 52:790–792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Wilson WE, Mar TF, Koenig JQ (2007) Influence of exposure error and effect modification by socioeconomic status on the association of acute cardiovascular mortality with particulate matter in Phoenix. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 17(Suppl 2):S11–S19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. World Health Organization (WHO) (2003) Health aspects of air pollution with particulate matter, ozone and nitrogen dioxide. Report on a WHO Working Group, Regional Office for Europe; Bonn, Germany, 13–15 January 2003. EUR/03/5042688. http://www.euro.who.int/document/e79097.pdf
  141. Yeatts K, Svendsen E, Creason J, Alexis N, Herbst M, Scott J, Kupper L, Williams R, Neas L, Cascio W, Devlin RB, Peden DB (2007) Coarse particulate matter (PM2.5–10) affects heart rate variability, blood lipids, and circulating eosinophils in adults with asthma. Environ Health Perspect 115:709–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Zanobetti A, Schwartz J (2009) The effect of fine and coarse particulate air pollution on mortality: a national analysis. Environ Health Perspect 117:898–903CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ivo Iavicoli
    • 1
    Email author
  • Veruscka Leso
    • 1
  • Luca Fontana
    • 1
  • Antonio Bergamaschi
    • 1
  1. 1.Istituto di Medicina del LavoroUniversità Cattolica del Sacro CuoreRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations