Advertisement

The Role of Stable Free Radicals, Metals and PAHs of Airborne Particulate Matter in Mechanisms of Oxidative Stress and Carcinogenicity

  • Athanasios ValavanidisEmail author
  • Konstantinos Fiotakis
  • Thomie Vlachogianni
Chapter
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)

Abstract

Ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) is considered as the most important pollutant for adverse health effects in the human respiratory system. PM is known to contain a large number of toxic and carcinogenic substances which in the lung’s alveoli cause oxidative stress, inflammation and cytotoxic damage leading to malignant neoplasms. Studies in recent years focused on transition metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), stable quinoid and carbonaceous radicals. In the presence of oxygen and through redox reactions PM promote the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially hydroxyl radicals (HO), which are linked to lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage to peptides and cellular and mitochondrial DNA. In this study we investigated the most important mechanisms of ROS generation from airborne traffic-related PM, and exhaust soot from diesel and gasoline vehicles (DEP, GEP). Using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) we examined the presence of persistent quinoid free radicals and we studied the direct production of superoxide anion (O 2 •− ), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the damaging hydroxyl radicals (HO) by PM extracts. Also, we examined by EPR the formation of oxidative damage to guanosine nucleobase by PM in aqueous phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). Experimental evidence shows that redox-active transition metals, persistent redox-cycling quinoids, and PAHs contained in the PM act synergistically, producing ROS. These ROS are considered the main mechanisms for the cytotoxic and carcinogenic potential of PM, leading to oxidative stress, pulmonary tissue injuries and DNA damage.

Keywords

Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectrum Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Signal Total Suspend Particulate Ultrafine Particle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Alessandrini F, Beck-Soeir I, Krappman D, Weichenmeier I, Takenaka S, Karg E, Kloo B, Schulz H, Jacob T, Mempei M, Behrendt H (2009) Role of oxidative stress in ultrafine particle-induced exacerbation of allergic inflammation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 179:984–991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arudi RL, Allen AO, Bielski BH (1981) Some observations on the chemistry of KO2-DMSO solutions. FEBS Lett 35:265–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bai Y, Suzuki A, Sagai M (2001) The cytotoxic effects of diesel exhaust particles on human pulmonary artery endothelial cells in vitro: role of active oxygen species. Free Radic Biol Med 30:555–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Balakrishna S, Lomnicki S, McAvey KM, Cole RB, Dellinger B, Cormier SA (2009) Environmentally persistent free radicals amplify ultrafine particle mediated cellular oxidative stress and cytotoxicity. Part Fibre Toxicol 6:11–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bockhorn H (ed) (1994) Soot formation in combustion. Series in chemical physics, vol 59. Springer-Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  6. Bolton JL, Trush AM, Penning MT, Dryhurst G, Monks TJ (2000) Role of quinones in toxicology. Chem Res Toxicol 13:135–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brown DM, Wilson MR, MacNee W, Stone V, Donaldson K (2001) Size-dependent proinflammatory effects of ultrafine polystyrene particles: a role for surface area and oxidative stress in the enhanced activity of ultrafines. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 175:191–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brunkreef B, Holgate ST (2002) Air pollution and health. Lancet 360:1233–1242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen H, Goldberg MS, Villeneuve PJ (2008) A systematic review of the relation between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and chronic diseases. Rev Environ Health 23:243–297Google Scholar
  10. Churg A, Brauer M (1997) Human lung parenchyma retains PM2.5. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 155:2109–2111Google Scholar
  11. Churg A, Brauer M (2000) Ambient atmospheric particles in the airways of human lungs. Ultrastruct Pathol 24:353–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Davies JM, Gilbert BC, Hazlewood C, Polack N (1995) EPR spin-trapping studies of radical damage to DNA. J Chem Soc, Perkin Trans 2:13–21Google Scholar
  13. Dellinger B, Pryor AW, Cueto R, Squadrito GL, Hedge V, Deutsch WA (2001) Role of free radicals in the toxicity of airborne fine particulate matter. Chem Res Toxicol 14:1371–1377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dellinger B, Lominicki S, Khachatryan L, Maskos Z, Hall RW, Adounkpe J, McFerrin C, Truong H (2007) Formation and stabilization of persistent free radicals. Proc Combust Inst 31:521–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Donaldson K, Borm P (eds) (2006) Particle toxicology. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 30–33Google Scholar
  16. Donaldson K, Brown DM, Mitchell C, Dineva M, Beswick HP, Gilmour P, MacNee W (1997) Free radical activity of PM10: iron-mediated generation of hydroxyl radicals. Environ Health Perspect 105:1285–1289Google Scholar
  17. Dreher K, Jaskot R, Kodavanti U, Lehmann J, Winsett D, Costa D (1996) Soluble transition metals mediate the acute pulmonary injury and airways hyperreactivity by residual oil fly ash particles. Chest 109:541–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ferin J, Oberdorster G, Penney DP (1992) Pulmonary retention of ultra-fine and fine particles in rats. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 6:535–542Google Scholar
  19. Fujii T, Hayashi S, Hogg CJ, Vincent R, Van Eeden FS (2001) Particulate matter induces cytokine expression in human bronchial epithelial cells. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 25:265–271Google Scholar
  20. Gelboin HV (1980) Benzo[α]pyrene metabolism, activation and carcinogenesis: role and regulation of mixed function oxidases and related enzymes. Physiol Rev 60:1107–1166Google Scholar
  21. Ghio AJ, Kennedy PT, Whorton AR, Crumbliss AL, Hatch EG, Hoidal JR (1992) Role of surface complexed iron in oxidant generation and lung inflammation induced by silicates. Am J Physiol (Lung Cell Mol Physiol 7) 263:L511–L518Google Scholar
  22. Harrison RM, van Grieken RE (eds) (1999) Atmospheric particles. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, UK, pp 298–307Google Scholar
  23. Healey K, Smith EC, Wild CP, Routledge MN (2006) The mutagenicity of urban particulate matter in an enzyme free system is associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species. Mutat Res 602:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Knaapen AM, Shi T, Borm AJP, Schins FPR (2002) Soluble metals as well as insoluble particle fraction are involved in cellular DNA damage induced by particulate matter. Mol Cell Biochem 234/235:317–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Li N, Venkatesan I, Migue A, Kaplan R, Gujuluva C, Alam J, Nel A (2000) Induction of heme oxygenase-1 expression in macrophages by diesel exhaust particle chemicals and quinones via the antioxidant responsive element. J Immunol 165:3393–3401Google Scholar
  26. Liu L, Poon R, Chen L, Frescura AM, Montuschi P, Ciabattoni G, Wheeler A, Dales R (2009) Acute effects of air pollution on pulmonary function, airway inflammation, and oxidative stress in asthmatic children. Environ Health Perspect 117:668–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lundborg M, Johard U, Lastbom L, Gerde P, Cammer P (2001) Human alveolar macrophage phagocytic function is impaired by aggregates of ultrafine carbon particles. Environ Res 86:244–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mansurov ZA (2005) Soot formation in combustion processes (review). Combust Explos Shock Waves 41:727–744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Martin DL, Krunkosky MT, Dye AJ, Fischer BM, Jiang FN, Rochelle GL, Akley JN, Dreber KL (1997) The role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the response of airway epithelium to particles. Environ Health Perspect 105:1301–1307Google Scholar
  30. Mehta M, Chen LC, Gordon T, Rom W, Tang MS (2008) Particulate matter inhibits DNA repair and enhances mutagenesis. Mutat Res 657(2):116–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mo Y, Wan R, Chien S, Tollerud DJ, Zhang Q (2009) Activation of endothelial cells after exposure to ambient ultrafine particles: the role of NADPH oxidase. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 236:183–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Nachtman JP (1986) Superoxide generation by 1-nitropyrene in rat lung microsomes. Res Commun Pathol Pharmacol 51:73–80Google Scholar
  33. Ohyama M, Otake T, Adachi S, Kobayashi T, Morinaga K (2007) A comparison of reactive oxygen species by suspended particulate matter and diesel particles with macrophages. Inhalation Toxicol 19(Suppl 1):157–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Penning MT, Burczynski EM, Hung C-H, McCoull DK, Palackat NT, Tsuruda LS (1999) Dihydrodiol dehydrogenases and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon activities: generation of reactive and redox active o-quinones. Chem Res Toxicol 12:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pritchard JR, Ghio AJ, Lehmann JR, Winsett DW, Tepper JS, Park P, Gilmour MI, Dreher KL, Costa DL (1996) Oxidant generation and lung injury after exposure to particulate air pollutants are associated with concentrations of complexed iron. Inhalation Toxicol 8:457–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Puett RC, Schwartz J, Hart JE, Yanosky JD, Speizer FE, Suh H, Paciorek CJ, Neas LM, Laden F (2008) Chronic particulate exposure mortality, and coronary heart disease in the nurses’ health study. Am J Epidemiol 168:1161–1168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Qui BX, Cadenas E (1997) The role of NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase in quinone-mediated p21 induction in human colon carcinoma cells. Arch Biochem Biophys 346:241–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Renwick CL, Donaldson K, Clouter A (2001) Impairment of alveolar macrophage phagocytosis by ultrafine particles. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 172:119–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Roginsky AV, Barsukova KT, Stegmann BH (1999) Kinetics of redox interaction between substituted quinones and ascorbate under aerobic conditions. Chem-Biol Interact 121:177–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sagai M, Saito H, Ichinose T, Kodama M, Mori Y (1993) Biological effects of diesel exhaust particles. I. In vitro production of superoxide and in vivo toxicity in mouse. Free Radic Biol Med 14:37–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sagai M, Lim BH, Ichinose T (2000) Lung carcinogenesis by diesel exhaust particles and the carcinogenic mechanism via active oxygen. Inhalation Toxicol 12:215–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Salma I, Balashazy I, Winkler-Heif R, Hofmann W, Zaray G (2002) Effect of particle mass size distribution on the deposition of aerosols in the human respiratory system. Aerosol Sci 33:119–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Salvi S, Blomberg A, Rudell B, Kelly F, Sandstrom T, Holgate ST, Frew A et al (1999) Acute inflammatory responses in the airways and peripheral blood after short-term exposure to diesel exhaust in healthy human volunteers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 159:702–709Google Scholar
  44. Samoli E, Peng R, Ramsay T, Pipikou M, Touloumi G, Dominici F, Burnett R, Cohen A, Krewski D, Samet J, Katsouyanni K (2008) Acute effects of ambient particulate matter on mortality in Europe and North America: results from the APHENA study. Environ Health Perspect 116:1480–1486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sanchez-Perez Y, Chrino YI, Osornio-Vargas AR, Morales-Barcenas R, Gutierrez-Ruiz C, Vazquez-Lopez I, Garcia-Cuellar CM (2009) DNA damage response of A549 cells treated with particulate matter (PM10) of urban air pollutants. Cancer Lett 278:192–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Seaton A, MacNee W, Donaldson K, Godden D (1995) Particulate air pollution and acute health effects. Lancet 345:176–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Shinyashiki M, Eiguren-Fernandez A, Schmitz DA, Di Stefano E, Li N, Linak WP, Cho SH, Froines JR, Cho AK (2009) Electrophilic and redox properties of diesel exhaust particles. Environ Res 109:239–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Siegla DC, Smith GW (1981) Particulate carbon formation during combustion. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  49. Squadrito GL, Cueto R, Dellinger B, Pryor WA (2001) Quinoid redox cycling as a mechanism for sustained free radical generation by inhaled airborne particulate matter. Free Radic Biol Med 31:1132–1138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sullivan PD (1985) Free radical of benzo(a)pyrene and derivatives. Environ Health Perspect 64:283–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sun G, Crissman K, Norwood J (2001) Oxidative interactions and synthetic epithelial lining fluid with metal-containing particulate matter. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 281:L807–L815Google Scholar
  52. Valavanidis A, Salika A, Theodoropoulou A (2000) Generation of hydroxyl radicals by urban suspended particulate air matter. The role of iron ions. Atmos Environ 34:2379–2386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Valavanidis A, Fiotakis K, Bakeas E, Vlahogianni T (2005a) Electron paramagnetic resonance study of the generation of reactive oxygen species catalysed by transition metals and quinoid redox cycling by inhalable ambient particulate matter. Redox Rep 10:37–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Valavanidis A, Vlachogianni T, Fiotakis K (2005b) Comparative study of the formation of oxidative damage marker 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) adduct from the nucleoside 2′-deoxyguanosine by transition metals and suspension of particulate matter in relation to metal content and redox activity. Free Radic Res 39:1071–1078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Valavanidis A, Fiotakis K, Vlachogianni TTh (2008) Airborne particulate matter and human health: toxicological assessment and importance of size and composition of particles for oxidative damage and carcinogenic mechanisms. J Environ Sci Health, C 26:1–24Google Scholar
  56. Valavanidis A, Vlachogianni T, Fiotakis K (2009) 8-Hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-HOdG): a critical biomarker of oxidative stress and carcinogenesis. J Environ Sci Health C 27:1–20Google Scholar
  57. Van Eeden FS, Tan CW, Suwa T, Mukaett H, Terashima T, Fujii T, Qui D, Vincent R, Hogg JC et al (2001) Cytokines involved in the systemic inflammatory response induced by exposure to particulate matter air pollutants PM(10). Am J Respir Crit Care Med 164:826–830Google Scholar
  58. Van Maaren JMS, Borm AJP, Knapen A, van Herwijnen M, Schilderman AELP, Smith KP, Aust A, Tomatis M, Fubini B (1999) In vitro effects of coal fly ashes: hydroxyl radical generation, iron release, and DNA damage and toxicity in rat lung epithelial cells. Inhalation Toxicol 11:1123–1141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Xi J, Zhong B-J (2006) Soot formation in combustion systems. Review. Chem Eng Technol 29:665–673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Xia T, Korge P, Weiss JN, Li N, Venkatesen MI, Sioutas C, Nel A (2004) Quinones and aromatic chemical compounds in particulate matter induce mitochondrial dysfunction: implications for ultrafine particle toxicity. Environ Health Perspect 112:1347–1358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Yang W, Omaye ST (2009) Air pollutants, oxidative stress and human health. Mutat Res 674:45–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ying Z, Kampfrath T, Thurston G, Farrar B, Lippmann M, Wang A, Sun Q, Chen LC, Rajagopalan S (2009) Toxicol Sci (Epub ahead of print, 15 Apr)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Athanasios Valavanidis
    • 1
    Email author
  • Konstantinos Fiotakis
    • 1
  • Thomie Vlachogianni
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Organic ChemistryUniversity of AthensAthensGreece

Personalised recommendations