Pd Particles as Standardized Test Material for Bioavailability Studies of Traffic Related Pd Emissions to Barley Plants
Model palladium particles similar to those emitted from catalytic car exhaust converters were prepared and characterized with the intention of providing standardized material for investigation of the chemical behaviour and bioavailability of traffic related Pd emissions. Three types of Pd particles—Pd nanoparticles dispersed on silica support particles (Pd/SiO2), Pd only nanoparticles (Pd-NPs) and Pd micrometer particles (Pd-MPs)—were prepared and characterized in detail by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution (HR)-TEM, selective area diffraction (SAD), laser granulometry and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The optimized preparation procedures yield in elemental particles with narrow size distributions of 2–4 nm (on SiO2-support), 5–10 nm or 0.5–5 μm, respectively for Pd particle. These particles were applied in uptake studies with barley plants raised for 2 weeks in culture medium spiked with different Pd concentrations. Highest Pd uptake was observed with plants exposed to Pd-NPs, lowest uptake with plants exposed to Pd/SiO2. With increasing Pd exposure concentration significant decrease in the plant growth and in the potassium and calcium content of the plants was found.
KeywordsUltra Pure Water Selective Area Diffraction Barley Plant Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Nutrient Salt
The authors are very grateful to Dr. Florian Battke (German Research Center for Environmental Heath, Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Neuherberg, Germany) for raising the barley plants.
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