Ambulatory Impedance Cardiography

Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 76)


In this chapter the idea of the impedance cardiography will be presented followed by a description of a central hemodynamics ambulatory monitoring system, available for both research and clinical applications. Basing on the REOMONITOR system, developed in my home institution, the essential parts of the most of the ambulatory systems will be presented. Then will be described other systems used in the cardiology and physiological researches. All of the presented in this chapter systems were verified using the clinically accepted reference methods—non-invasive (ultrasound), invasive or at least, compared against the stationary impedance device Minnesota 304B.


Stroke Volume Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia Skin Conductance Level Impedance Signal Impedance Cardiography 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Charloux, A., Lonsdorfer-Wolf, E., Richard, R., Lampert, E., Oswald-Mammosser, M., Mettauer, B., Geny, B., Lonsdorfer, J.: A new impedance cardiograph device for the non-invasive evaluation of cardiac output at rest and during exercise: comparison with the “direct” Fick method. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 82(4), 313–320 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chiang, C., Hu, W., Shyu, L.: Portable impedance cardiography system for real-time non invasive cardiac output measurement. In: Proceedings, 19th International Conference, IEEE/EMBS, October 30–November 2, pp. 2072–2073 (1997)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cybulski, G.: Computer method for automatic determination of stroke volume using impedance cardiography signals. Acta Physiol. Pol. 39(5–6), 494–503 (1988)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cybulski, G.: Influence of age on the immediate cardiovascular response to the orthostatic manoeuvre. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 73, 563–572 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cybulski, G.: Ambulatory impedance cardiography: new possibilities, Letter to the Editor. J. Appl. Physiol. 88, 1509–1510 (2000)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cybulski, G.: Dynamic impedance cardiography—the system and its applications. Pol. J. Med. Phys. Eng. 11(3), 127–209 (2005)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cybulski, G., Miśkiewicz, Z., Szulc, J., Torbicki, A., Pasierski, T.: A comparison between impedance cardiography and two dimensional echocardiography methods for measurements of stroke volume (SV) and systolic time intervals (STI). J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 44(3), 251–258 (1993)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cybulski, G., Książkiewicz, A., Łukasik, W., Niewiadomski, W., Pałko, T.: Ambulatory monitoring device for central hemodynamic and ECG signal recording on PCMCI flash memory cards. In: Computers in Cardiology, pp. 505–507. IEEE, New York, NY, USA (1995)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cybulski, G., Książkiewicz, A., Łukasik, W., Niewiadomski, W., Pałko, T.: Central hemodynamics and ECG ambulatory monitoring device with signals recording on PCMCIA flash memory cards. Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 34(suppl 1, part 1), 79–80 (1996)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cybulski, G., Ziółkowska, E., Kodrzycka, A., Niewiadomski, W., Sikora, K., Książkiewicz, A., Łukasik, W., Pałko, T.: Application of impedance cardiography ambulatory monitoring system for analysis of central hemodynamics in healthy man and arrhythmia patients. In: Computers in Cardiology 1997, pp. 509–512. IEEE, New York, NY, USA (1997)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cybulski, G., Ziółkowska, E., Książkiewicz, A., Łukasik, W., Niewiadomski, W., Kodrzycka, A., Pałko, T.: Application of impedance cardiography ambulatory monitoring device for analysis of central hemodynamics variability in atrial fibrillation. In: Computers in Cardiology, vol. 26 (Cat. No. 99CH37004), pp. 563–566. IEEE, 1999, Piscataway, NJ, USA (1999)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    McFetridge-Durdle, J.A., Routledge, F.S., Parry, M.J., Dean, C.R., Tucker, B.: Ambulatory impedance cardiography in hypertension: a validation study. Eur. J. Cardiovasc. Nurs. 7(3), 204–213 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nakagawara, M., Yamakoshi, K.: A portable instrument for non-invasive monitoring of beat-by-beat cardiovascular haemodynamic parameters based on the volume-compensation and electrical-admittance method. Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 38(1), 17–25 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nakonezny, P.A., Kowalewski, R.B., Ernst, J.M., Hawkley, L.C., Lozano, D.L., Litvack, D.A., Berntson, G.G., Sollers 3rd, J.J., Kizakevich, P., Cacioppo, J.T., Lovallo, W.R.: New ambulatory impedance cardiograph validated against the Minnesota impedance cardiograph. Psychophysiology 38(3), 465–473 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Panfili, G., Piccini, L., Maggi, L., Parini, S., Andreoni, G.: A wearable device for continuous monitoring of heart mechanical function based on impedance cardiography. Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 1, 5968–5971 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Parry, M.J., McFetridge-Durdle, J.: Ambulatory impedance cardiography: a systematic review. Nurs. Res. 55(4), 283–291 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Qu, M., Webster, J.G., Tompkins, W.J., Voss, S., Bogenhagen, B., Nagel, F.: Portable impedance cardiograph for ambulatory subjects. In: Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, vol. 3, pp. 1488–1489. IEEE, New York, NY, USA (1987)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Riese, H., Groot, P.F., van den Berg, M., Kupper, N.H., Magnee, E.H., Rohaan, E.J., Vrijkotte, T.G., Willemsen, G., de Geus, E.J.: Large-scale ensemble averaging of ambulatory impedance cardiograms. Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 35(3), 467–477 (2003)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sherwood, A., McFetridge, J., Hutcheson, J.S.: Ambulatory impedance cardiography: a feasibility study. J. Appl. Physiol. 85(6), 2365–2369 (1998)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Willemsen, G.H., De Geus, E.J., Klaver, C.H., Van Doornen, L.J., Carroll, D.: Ambulatory monitoring of the impedance cardiogram. Psychophysiology 33(2), 184–193 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zhang, Y., Qu, M., Webster, J.G., Tompkins, W.J.: Impedance cardiography for ambulatory subjects. In: Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Conference of the IEEE/Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Frontiers of Engineering and Computing in Health Care, vol. 2, pp. 764–769. IEEE, New York, NY, USA (1985)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Applied PhysiologyMedical Research Centre of Polish Academy of SciencesWarsawPoland
  2. 2.Department of Mechatronics, Institute of Metrology and Biomedical EngineeringWarsaw University of TechnologyWarsawPoland

Personalised recommendations