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Plasma Physics pp 133-167 | Cite as

Plasma Waves

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Abstract

The interest in wave propagation in plasmas has different roots. One of these was the reflection of electromagnetic waves by the ionosphere [91]. Stimulated by Guglielmo Marconi’s (1874–1937) experiments on long-distance radio in 1901, Oliver Heaviside (1850–1925) [92] and, independently, Arthur Edwin Kennelly (1861–1939) [93] postulated, in 1902, that the Earth’s atmosphere at high altitude must contain an electrically conducting layer that reflects radio waves like a mirror. Many decades before, in 1839, Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855) had conjectured that the fluctuations of the Earth magnetic field might be related to electric currents in the high atmosphere. The quantitative investigation of the ionoshere with radio waves began in the years 1924–1927 with the vertical sounding experiments in the U.S. of Gregory Breit (1899–1981) and Merle Antony Tuve (1901–1982) [94, 95], and in Great-Britain by Edward V. Appleton (1892–1965) [96], which proved the existence of a conducting atmospheric layer, now named the ionosphere, in the altitude regime of (100–500) km. At the same time, Irving Langmuir, at the General Electric Laboratories, discovered high-frequency fluctuations in gas discharges, now known as Langmuir oscillations [97].

Keywords

Phase Velocity Group Velocity Plasma Density Plasma Wave Dusty Plasma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel, Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte PhysikKielGermany

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