Image Authentication Scheme Based on Self-embedding Watermarking

  • Clara Cruz-Ramos
  • Rogelio Reyes-Reyes
  • Mariko Nakano-Miyatake
  • Héctor Pérez-Meana
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5856)


This paper presents a block-wise and content-based semi-fragile image watermarking authentication scheme with location and recovery capability. Firstly the image is segmented by two regions: Region of Interest (ROI) and Region of Embedding (ROE). The watermark sequence is extracted from ROI and it is embedded into the middle frequency band of DCT coefficients of ROE. In the authentication stage, two watermark sequences extracted ROI and ROE, respectively, are used. If difference between both sequences of a ROI block is smaller than the predefined threshold value, the ROI block is determined authentic, otherwise the block is considered as tampered and it is recovered by the recovery process. The proposed scheme is evaluated from several points of view: watermark imperceptibility, capability of tamper detection, image quality of recovered regions and robustness of no-intentional manipulations, such as JPEG compression. The simulation results show fairly good performance of the proposed scheme.


Image authentication Semi-fragile watermarking Self-embedding watermarking Tamper detection Tamper localization 


  1. 1.
    Lu, C.-S., Liao, H.-Y.: Structural Digital Signature for Image Authentication: An Incidental Distortion Resistant Scheme. IEEE Trans. Multimedia 5(2), 161–173 (2003)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lou, D.-C., Ju., J.-L.: Fault Resilient and Compression Tolerant Digital Signature for Image authentication. IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. 46(1), 31–39 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Maeno, K., Sun, Q., Chang, S.-F., Suto, M.: New Semi-Fragile Image Authentication Watermarking Techniques Using Random Bias and Nonuniform Quantization. IEEE Trans. Multimedia 8(1), 32–45 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wong, P.-W., Memon, N.: Secret and Public Key Image Watermarking Schemes for Image Authentication and Ownership Verification. IEEE Trans. Image Processing 10(10), 1593–1601 (2001)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lin, C.-Y., Chang, S.-F.: A Robust Image Authentication Method Distinguishing JPEG compression from Malicious Manipulation. IEEE Trans. Circuit Syst. Video Technol. 11(2), 153–168 (2001)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lu, Z.-M., Xu, D.-G., Sun, S.-H.: Multipurpose Image Watermarking Algorithm Based on Multistage Vector Quantization. IEEE Trans. Image processing 14, 822–831 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lin, P.-L., Huang, P.-W., Peng, A.-W.: A Fragile Watermarking Scheme for Image Authentication with Localization and Recovery. In: Proc. of the IEEE sixth Int. Symp. on Multimedia Software Engineering, pp. 146–153 (2004)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tsai, P., Hu, Y.-C.: A Watermarking-Based Authentication with Malicious Detection and Recovery. In: Int. Conf. of Information, Communication and Signal Processing, pp. 865–869 (2005)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Clara Cruz-Ramos
    • 1
  • Rogelio Reyes-Reyes
    • 1
  • Mariko Nakano-Miyatake
    • 1
  • Héctor Pérez-Meana
    • 1
  1. 1.ESIME CulhuacanNational Polytechnic Institute of MéxicoMéxicoMéxico

Personalised recommendations