Energy-Aware System Design with SDL

  • Reinhard Gotzhein
  • Marc Krämer
  • Lothar Litz
  • Alain Chamaken
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5719)


Energy consumption is a major concern during the development of wireless networks consisting of battery-powered nodes. In this paper, we study possibilities of specifying energy aspects in the system design phase, with SDL as design language. In particular, we strive for suitable abstractions, by establishing a design view that is largely platform-independent. We achieve this objective by identifying and realizing energy mode signaling and energy scheduling as two complementary approaches to incorporate energy aspects into SDL. We provide details on how to apply these approaches in order to control the energy consumption of CPU and transceiver, and how to implement them on the Imote2 platform. A case study illustrates the use of both approaches in a wireless networked control system.


Sensor Node Wireless Sensor Network Inverted Pendulum Energy Aspect Inactive Mode 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Akyildiz, I.F., Sankarasubramaniam, Y., Cayirci, E.: Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey. Computer Networks 38(4), 393–422 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tonguz, O.K., Ferrari, G.: Ad Hoc Wireless Networks: A Communication-theoretic Perspective. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Walsh, G.C., Ye, H., Bushnell, L.: Stability Analysis of Networked Control Systems. IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology 10(3), 438–445 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    International Telecommunications Union: Recommendation Z.100(11/07), Specification and Description Language (SDL),
  5. 5.
    Object Management Group (OMG): Unified Modeling Language (UML),
  6. 6.
  7. 7.
    Rao, R., Vrudhula, S., Rakhmatov, D.N.: Battery modeling for energy aware system design. Computer 36(12), 77–87 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Benini, L., Macii, A., Poncino, M.: Energy-aware design of embedded memories: A survey of technologies, architectures, and optimization techniques. ACM Transaction on Embedded Computing Systems 2(1), 5–32 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Aydin, H., Melhem, R., Mosse, D., Majia-Alvarez, P.: Power-aware scheduling for periodic real-time tasks. IEEE Transactions on Computers 53(5), 584–600 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Herczeg, Z., Schmidt, D., Kiss, A., Wehn, N., Gyimothy, T.: Energy Simulation of Embedded XScale Systems with XEEMU. Journal of Embedded Computing, Special Issue 3(3) (2009)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ye, W., Heidemann, J.S., Estrin, D.: An energy-efficient MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks. In: Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM 2002, pp. 1567–1576 (2002)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Du, S., Saha, A.K., Johnson, D.B.: RMAC: A Routing-Enhanced Duty-Cycle MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks. In: Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM 2007, pp. 1478–1486 (2007)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Akkaya, K., Younis, M.: A Survey on Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks. Ad Hoc Networks (Elsevier) 3(3), 325–349 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mohsen, A., Hofmann, R.: Efficient Voltage Scheduling and Energy-aware Co-synthesis for Real-time Embedded Systems. In: Srikanthan, T., Xue, J., Chang, C.-H. (eds.) ACSAC 2005. LNCS, vol. 3740, pp. 3–14. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Telelogic AB: Telelogic Tau Generation 1 - SDL Tau Suite,
  16. 16.
    Fliege, I., Grammes, R., Weber, C.: ConTraST - A Configurable SDL Transpiler and Runtime Environment. In: Gotzhein, R., Reed, R. (eds.) SAM 2006. LNCS, vol. 4320, pp. 216–228. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
  18. 18.
    Yale School of Engineering & Applied Science: Power Modes and Energy Consumption for the iMote2 Sensor Node. Technical report, Enalab,
  19. 19.
    Chipcon / Texas Instruments: CC2420 datasheet,
  20. 20.
    Glässer, U., Gotzhein, R., Prinz, A.: The Formal Semantics of SDL-2000 - Status and Perspectives. Computer Networks 42(3), 343–358 (2003)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    ITU-T Recommendation Z.100 Annex F (11/00), SDL Formal Definition,
  22. 22.
    Kuhn, T., Gotzhein, R., Webel, C.: Model-Driven Development with SDL - Process, Tools, and Experiences. In: Nierstrasz, O., Whittle, J., Harel, D., Reggio, G. (eds.) MoDELS 2006. LNCS, vol. 4199, pp. 83–97. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gabel, O., Litz, L.: NCS Testbed for Ambient Intelligence. In: Proceedings of the IEEE SMC Conference, pp. 115–120 (2005)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reinhard Gotzhein
    • 1
  • Marc Krämer
    • 1
  • Lothar Litz
    • 2
  • Alain Chamaken
    • 2
  1. 1.Networked Systems GroupUniversity of KaiserslauternGermany
  2. 2.Institute of Automatic ControlUniversity of KaiserslauternGermany

Personalised recommendations