A Universal Metamodel and Its Dictionary

  • Paolo Atzeni
  • Giorgio Gianforme
  • Paolo Cappellari
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5740)


We discuss a universal metamodel aimed at the representation of schemas in a way that is at the same time model-independent (in the sense that it allows for a uniform representation of different data models) and model-aware (in the sense that it is possible to say to whether a schema is allowed for a data model). This metamodel can be the basis for the definition of a complete model-management system. Here we illustrate the details of the metamodel and the structure of a dictionary for its representation. Exemplifications of a concrete use of the dictionary are provided, by means of the representations of the main data models, such as relational, object-relational or XSD-based. Moreover, we demonstrate how set operators can be redefined with respect to our dictionary and easily applied on it. Finally, we show how such a dictionary can be exploited to automatically produce detailed descriptions of schema and data models, in a textual (i.e. XML) or visual (i.e. UML class diagram) way.


Data Model Structure Column Uniform Representation Model Drive Architecture Extra Column 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Allen, F.W., Loomis, M.E.S., Mannino, M.V.: The integrated dictionary/directory system. ACM Comput. Surv. 14(2), 245–286 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Atzeni, P., Bellomarini, L., Bugiotti, F., Gianforme, G.: From schema and model translation to a model management system. In: Gray, A., Jeffery, K., Shao, J. (eds.) BNCOD 2008. LNCS, vol. 5071, pp. 227–240. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Atzeni, P., Cappellari, P., Bernstein, P.A.: A multilevel dictionary for model management. In: Delcambre, L.M.L., Kop, C., Mayr, H.C., Mylopoulos, J., Pastor, Ó. (eds.) ER 2005. LNCS, vol. 3716, pp. 160–175. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Atzeni, P., Cappellari, P., Torlone, R., Bernstein, P.A., Gianforme, G.: Model-independent schema translation. VLDB J. 17(6), 1347–1370 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Atzeni, P., Del Nostro, P.: Management of heterogeneity in the semantic web. In: ICDE Workshops, p. 60. IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos (2006)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Atzeni, P., Paolozzi, S., Nostro, P.D.: Ontologies and databases: Going back and forth. In: ODBIS (VLDB Workshop), pp. 9–16 (2008)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Atzeni, P., Torlone, R.: A metamodel approach for the management of multiple models and translation of schemes. Information Systems 18(6), 349–362 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Atzeni, P., Torlone, R.: Management of multiple models in an extensible database design tool. In: Apers, P.M.G., Bouzeghoub, M., Gardarin, G. (eds.) EDBT 1996. LNCS, vol. 1057, pp. 79–95. Springer, Heidelberg (1996)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Batini, C., Battista, G.D., Santucci, G.: Structuring primitives for a dictionary of entity relationship data schemas. IEEE Trans. Software Eng. 19(4), 344–365 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bernstein, P., Bergstraesser, T., Carlson, J., Pal, S., Sanders, P., Shutt, D.: Microsoft repository version 2 and the open information model. Information Systems 22(4), 71–98 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bernstein, P.A.: Applying model management to classical meta data problems. In: CIDR Conference, pp. 209–220 (2003)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bernstein, P.A., Halevy, A.Y., Pottinger, R.: A vision of management of complex models. SIGMOD Record 29(4), 55–63 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bernstein, P.A., Melnik, S.: Model management 2.0: manipulating richer mappings. In: SIGMOD Conference, pp. 1–12 (2007)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bézivin, J., Breton, E., Dupé, G., Valduriez, P.: The ATL transformation-based model management framework. Research Report 03.08, IRIN, Université de Nantes (2003)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Claypool, K.T., Rundensteiner, E.A.: Sangam: A framework for modeling heterogeneous database transformations. In: ICEIS (1), pp. 219–224 (2003)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Claypool, K.T., Rundensteiner, E.A., Zhang, X., Su, H., Kuno, H.A., Lee, W.-C., Mitchell, G.: Sangam - a solution to support multiple data models, their mappings and maintenance. In: SIGMOD Conference, p. 606 (2001)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    De Virgilio, R., Torlone, R.: Modeling heterogeneous context information in adaptive web based applications. In: ICWE Conference, pp. 56–63. ACM, New York (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gianforme, G., Virgilio, R.D., Paolozzi, S., Nostro, P.D., Avola, D.: A novel approach for practical semantic web data management. In: Lovrek, I., Howlett, R.J., Jain, L.C. (eds.) KES 2008, Part II. LNCS, vol. 5178, pp. 650–655. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hsu, C., Bouziane, M., Rattner, L., Yee, L.: Information resources management in heterogeneous, distributed environments: A metadatabase approach. IEEE Trans. Software Eng. 17(6), 604–625 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hull, R., King, R.: Semantic database modelling: Survey, applications and research issues. ACM Computing Surveys 19(3), 201–260 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kahn, B.K., Lumsden, E.W.: A user-oriented framework for data dictionary systems. DATA BASE 15(1), 28–36 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    McGee, W.C.: Generalization: Key to successful electronic data processing. J. ACM 6(1), 1–23 (1959)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Melnik, S.: Generic Model Management: Concepts and Algorithms. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mork, P., Bernstein, P.A., Melnik, S.: Teaching a schema translator to produce O/R views. In: Parent, C., Schewe, K.-D., Storey, V.C., Thalheim, B. (eds.) ER 2007. LNCS, vol. 4801, pp. 102–119. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Paolozzi, S., Atzeni, P.: Interoperability for semantic annotations. In: DEXA Workshops, pp. 445–449. IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos (2007)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rahm, E., Do, H.: On metadata interoperability in data warehouses. Technical report, University of Leipzig (2000)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Soley, R., The OMG Staff Strategy Group: Model driven architecture. White paper, draft 3.2, Object Management Group (November 2000)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Song, G., Zhang, K., Wong, R.: Model management though graph transformations. In: IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human Centric Computing, pp. 75–82 (2004)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paolo Atzeni
    • 1
  • Giorgio Gianforme
    • 1
  • Paolo Cappellari
    • 2
  1. 1.Università Roma TreItaly
  2. 2.University of AlbertaCanada

Personalised recommendations