Advertisement

Some Pitfalls for Developing Enculturated Conversational Agents

  • Matthias Rehm
  • Elisabeth André
  • Yukiko Nakano
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5612)

Abstract

A review of current agent-based systems exemplifies that a Western perspective is predominant in the field. But as conversational agents focus on rich multimodal interactive behaviors that underlie face-to-face encounters, it is indispensable to incorporate cultural heuristics of such behaviors into the system. In this paper we examine some of the pitfalls that arise in developing such systems.

Keywords

Embodied Conversational Agents Cultural Heuristics Multimodal Interaction 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Abrilian, S., Martin, J.-C., Buisine, S., Devillers, L.: Perception of movement expressivity in emotional TV interviews. In: HUMAINE Summerschool (2006)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Argyle, M.: Bodily Communication. Methuen & Co. Ltd., London (1975)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aylett, R., Paiva, A., Vannini, N., Enz, S., André, E., Hall, L.: But that was in another country: agents and intercultural empathy. In: Proceedings of AAMAS (2009)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Caridakis, G., Raouzaiou, A., Bevacqua, E., Mancini, M., Karpouzis, K., Malatesta, L., Pelachaud, C.: Virtual agent multimodal mimicry of humans. Language Resources and Evaluation 41, 367–388 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cassell, J., Sullivan, J., Prevost, S., Churchill, E.: Embodied conversational agents. MIT Press, Cambridge (2000)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cassell, J., Nakano, Y., Bickmore, T.W., Sidner, C.L., Rich, C.: Non-Verbal Cues for Discourse Structure. Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 106–115 (2001)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chafai, N.E., Pelachaud, C., Pelè, D.: Analysis of gesture expressivity modulations from cartoon animations. In: Proceedings of the LREC Workshop on Multimodal Corpora (2006)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ekman, P.: Telling Lies — Clues to Deceit in the Marketplace, Politics, and Marriage, 3rd edn. Norton and Co. Ltd., New York (1992)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hall, E.T.: The Hidden Dimension. Doubleday (1966)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hall, L., Woods, S., Aylett, R., Newall, L., Paiva, A.: Achieving Empathic Engagement Through Affective Interaction with Synthetic Characters. In: Tao, J., Tan, T., Picard, R.W. (eds.) ACII 2005. LNCS, vol. 3784, pp. 731–738. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hofstede, G.: Cultures Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations Across Nations. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks (2001)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Iacobelli, F., Cassell, J.: Ethnic identity and engagement in embodied conversational agents. In: Pelachaud, C., Martin, J.-C., André, E., Chollet, G., Karpouzis, K., Pelé, D. (eds.) IVA 2007. LNCS, vol. 4722, pp. 57–63. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jan, D., Herrera, D., Martinovski, B., Novick, D., Traum, D.: A Computational Model of Culture-Specific Conversational Behavior. In: Pelachaud, C., Martin, J.-C., André, E., Chollet, G., Karpouzis, K., Pelé, D. (eds.) IVA 2007. LNCS, vol. 4722, pp. 45–56. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lewis Johnson, W.: Serious use of a serious game for language training. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, pp. 67–74 (2007)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Khaled, R., Biddle, R., Noble, J., Barr, P., Fischer, R.: Persuasive interaction for collectivist cultures. In: Piekarski, W. (ed.) The Seventh Australasian User Interface Conference (AUIC 2006), pp. 73–80 (2006)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kipp, M., Neff, M., Kipp, K.H., Albrecht, I.: Towards Natural Gesture Synthesis: Evaluating gesture units in a data-driven approach to gesture synthesis. In: Pelachaud, C., Martin, J.-C., André, E., Chollet, G., Karpouzis, K., Pelé, D. (eds.) IVA 2007. LNCS, vol. 4722, pp. 15–28. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kluckhohn, F., Strodtbeck, F.: Variations in value orientations. Row, Peterson (1961)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chad Lane, H., Hays, M.J.: Getting down to business: Teaching cross-cultural social interaction skills in a serious game. In: Workshop on Culturally Aware Tutoring Systems (CATS), pp. 35–46 (2008)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lee, J., Marsella, S.: Nonverbal Behavior Generator for Embodied Conversational Agents. In: Gratch, J., Young, M., Aylett, R.S., Ballin, D., Olivier, P. (eds.) IVA 2006. LNCS, vol. 4133, pp. 243–255. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    McNeill, D.: Hand and Mind — What Gestures Reveal about Thought. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago (1992)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nakano, Y., Nishida, T.: Awareness of Perceived World and Conversational Engagement by Conversational Agents. In: Proceedings of the AISB 2005 Symposium on Conversational Informatics for Supporting Social Intelligence & Interaction (2005)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nakano, Y., Rehm, M.: Multimodal Corpus Analysis as a Method to Ensure Cultural Usability of Embodied Conversational Agents. In: Proceedings of HCI International (2009)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nakano, Y., Reinstein, G., Stocky, T., Cassell, J.: Towards a Model of Face-to-face Grounding. In: Proceedings of the Association for Computational Linguistics (2003)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Reeves, B., Nass, C.: The Media Equation – How People Treat Computers, Television, and New Media Like Real People and Place. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1996)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rehm, M.: She is just stupid – Analyzing user-agent interactions in emotional game situations. Interacting with Computers 20(3), 311–325 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rehm, M., André, E.: More Than Just a Friendly Phrase: Multimodal Aspects of Polite Behavior in Agents. In: Nishida, T. (ed.) Conversational Informatics, pp. 69–84. Wiley, Chichester (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rehm, M., Rosina, P.: Second Life as an Evaluation Platform for Multiagent Systems Featuring Social Interactions. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS) (2008)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rehm, M., André, E., Conradi, B., Hammer, S., Iversen, M., Lösch, E., Pajonk, T., Stamm, K.: Location-based interaction with children for edutainment. In: André, E., Dybkjær, L., Minker, W., Neumann, H., Weber, M. (eds.) PIT 2006. LNCS, vol. 4021, pp. 197–200. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rehm, M., Bee, N., André, E.: Wave like an Egyptian – Accelerometer based gesture recognition for culture specific interactions. In: Proceedings of Britisch HCI (2008)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rehm, M., Vogt, T., Bee, N., Wissner, M.: Dancing the Night Away – Controlling a Virtual Karaoke Dancer by Multimodal Expressive Cues. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS), pp. 1249–1252 (2008)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Schwartz, S.H., Sagiv, L.: Identifying culture-specifics in the content and structure of values. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 26(1), 92–116 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ting-Toomey, S.: Communicating Across Cultures. The Guilford Press, NewYork (1999)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthias Rehm
    • 1
  • Elisabeth André
    • 1
  • Yukiko Nakano
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Applied InformaticsUniversity of AugsburgGermany
  2. 2.Faculty of Science and TechnologySeikei University TokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations