Neural Pathways of Embodied Simulation

  • Henrik Svensson
  • Anthony F. Morse
  • Tom Ziemke
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5499)


Simulation theories have in recent years proposed that a cognitive agent’s "inner world" can at least partly be constituted by internal emulations or simulations of its sensorimotor interaction with the world, i.e. covert perception and action. This paper further integrates simulation theory with the notion of the brain as a predictive machine. In particular, it outlines the neural pathways of covert simulations, which include implicit anticipation in cerebellar and basal gangliar circuits, bodily anticipation by means of forward models in the cerebellum, and environmental anticipation in the neocortex. The paper also discusses, to some extent, possible implications of the neural pathways of covert simulation for the frame problem, and the relation between procedural and declarative knowledge in covert simulations.


Basal Ganglion Forward Model Motor Imagery Mirror Neuron Eyeblink Conditioning 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Balkenius, C.: Natural Intelligence in Artificial Creatures. Doctoral Dissertation. University of Lund (1995)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cotterill, R.M.J.: Cooperation of the Basal Ganglia, Cerebellum, Sensory Cerebrum and Hippocampus: Possible Implications for Cognition, Consciousness, Intelligence and Creativity. Progress in Neurobiology 64, 1–33 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hesslow, G.: Conscious Thought as Simulation of Behaviour and Perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6, 242–247 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jeannerod, M.: Neural Simulation of Action: A Unifying Mechanism for Motor Cognition. NeuroImage 14, 103–109 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Grush, R.: The Emulation Theory of Representation: Motor Control, Imagery, and Perception. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27, 377–396 (2004)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dennett, D.C.: Kinds of Minds: Toward an Understanding of Consciousness. Basic Books, New York (1996)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dennett, D.C.: Cognitive Wheels: The Frame Problem in Artificial Intelligence. In: Hookway, C. (ed.) Minds, Machines and Evolution, pp. 129–151. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1984)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shanahan, M., Baars, B.: Applying Global Workspace Theory to the Frame Problem. Cognition 98, 157–176 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Haselager, W.F.G., van Rappard, J.F.H.: Connectionism, Systematicity, and the Frame Problem. Minds and Machines 8, 161–179 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chrisley, R.: Cognitive Map Construction and Use: A Parallel Distributed Processing Approach. In: Touretzky, D., Elman, J., Hinton, G., Sejnowski, T. (eds.) Connectionist Models: Proceedings of the 1990 Summer School, pp. 287–302. Morgan Kaufman, San Mateo (1990)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Möller, R., Schenck, W.: Bootstrapping Cognition from Behavior—A Computerized Thought Experiment. Cognitive Science 32, 504–542 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Downing, K.L.: Neuroscientific Implications for Situated and Embodied Artificial Intelligence. Connection Science 19, 75–104 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Downing, K.L.: Predictive Models in the Brain. Connection Science (in press) Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Svensson, H.: Embodied Simulation as Off-Line Representation. University of Skövde, Licentiate Dissertation, Linköping (2007)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Barsalou, L.W.: Perceptual Symbol Systems. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22, 577–660 (1999)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bickhard, M.H.: Language as an Interaction System. New Ideas in Psychology 25, 171–187 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Maturana, H.R., Varela, F.J.: The Tree of Knowledge: The Biological Roots of Human Understanding. Shambhala, Boston (1987)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    von Glasersfeld, E.: Distinguishing the Observer: An Attempt at Interpreting Maturana, Transl. (1990). Originally appeared as von Glasersfeld, E (1990) Die Unterscheidung des Beobachters: Versuch einer Auslegung. In: Riegas, V., Vetter, C. (eds.) Zur Biologie der Kognition, pp. 281–295. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt, Germany (1990)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Svensson, H., Lindblom, J., Ziemke, T.: Making Sense of Embodiment: Simulation Theories of Shared Neural Mechanisms for Sensorimotor and Cognitive Processes. In: Ziemke, T., Zlatev, J., Frank, R. (eds.) Body, Language and Mind. Embodiment, vol. 1, pp. 241–270. Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin (2007)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sjölander, S.: Some Cognitive Breakthroughs in the Evolution of Cognition and Consciousness, and Their Impact on the Biology of Language. Evolution and Cognition 3, 3–11 (1995)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gandhi, S.P.: Memory Retrieval: Reactivating Sensory Cortex. Current Biology 11, R32–R34 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nyberg, L., Petersson, K.M., Nilsson, L.G., Sandblom, J., Aberg, C., Ingvar, M.: Reactivation of Motor Brain Areas During Explicit Memory for Actions. NeuroImage 14, 521–528 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wheeler, M.E., Petersen, S.E., Buckner, R.L.: Memory’s Echo: Vivid Remembering Reactivates Sensory-Specific Cortex. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 11125–11129 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nyberg, L., Habib, R., McIntosh, A.R., Tulving, E.: Reactivation of Encoding-Related Brain Activity During Memory Retrieval. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 11120–11124 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Damasio, A.R.: Time-Locked Multiregional Retroactivation: A Systems-Level Proposal for the Neural Substrates of Recall and Recognition. Cognition 33, 25–62 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nyberg, L., Forkstam, C., Petersson, K.M., Cabeza, R., Ingvar, M.: Brain Imaging of Human Memory Systems: Between-Systems Similarities and within-System Differences. Cognitive Brain Research 13, 281–292 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Baddeley, A.D.: Essentials of Human Memory. Psychology Press, Hove (1999)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    de Lange, F.P., Roelofs, K., Toni, I.: Motor Imagery: A Window into the Mechanisms and Alterations of the Motor System. Cortex 44, 494–506 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gentili, R., Papaxanthis, C., Pozzo, T.: Improvement and Generalization of Arm Motor Performance through Motor Imagery Practice. Neuroscience 137, 761–772 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jeannerod, M.: The Representing Brain: Neural Correlates of Motor Intention and Imagery. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17, 187–245 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jeannerod, M., Frak, V.: Mental Imaging of Motor Activity in Humans. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 9, 735–739 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Papaxanthis, C., Schieppati, M., Gentili, R., Pozzo, T.: Imagined and Actual Arm Movements Have Similar Durations When Performed under Different Conditions of Direction and Mass. Experimental Brain Research 143, 447–452 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Guillot, A., Collet, C.: Duration of Mentally Simulated Movement: A Review. Journal of Motor Behavior 37, 10–20 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Decety, J., Jeannerod, M., Durozard, D., Baverel, G.: Central Activation of Autonomic Effectors During Mental Simulation of Motor Actions in Man. The Journal of Physiology 461, 549–563 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Yue, G., Cole, K.J.: Strength Increases from the Motor Program: Comparison of Training with Maximal Voluntary and Imagined Muscle Contractions. Journal of Neurophysiology 67, 1114–1123 (1992)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Grèzes, J., Decety, J.: Functional Anatomy of Execution, Mental Simulation, Observation, and Verb Generation of Actions: A Meta-Analysis. Human Brain Mapping 12, 1–19 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fadiga, L., Craighero, L.: Electrophysiology of Action Representation. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology 21, 157–169 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rizzolatti, G., Fadiga, L., Gallese, V., Fogassi, L.: Premotor Cortex and the Recognition of Motor Actions. Cognitive Brain Research 3, 131–141 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    di Pellegrino, G., Fadiga, L., Fogassi, L., Gallese, V., Rizzolatti, G.: Understanding Motor Events: A Neurophysiological Study. Experimental Brain Research 91, 176–180 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rizzolatti, G., Arbib, M.A.: Language within Our Grasp. Trends in Neurosciences 21, 188–194 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rizzolatti, G.: The Mirror Neuron System and Its Function in Humans. Anatomy and Embryology 210, 419–421 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Rizzolatti, G., Camarda, R., Fogassi, L., Gentilucci, M., Luppino, G., Matelli, M.: Functional Organization of Inferior Area 6 in the Macaque Monkey. Experimental Brain Research 71, 491–507 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Finke, R.A.: Principles of Mental Imagery. MIT Press, Cambridge (1989)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Farah, M.J.: The Neural Bases of Mental Imagery. In: Gazzaniga, M.S. (ed.) The New Cognitive Neurosciences, pp. 965–974. MIT Press, Cambridge (2000)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kosslyn, S.M.: Image and Brain: The Resolution of the Imagery Debate. MIT Press, Cambridge (1994)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Holland, P.C.: Event Representation in Pavlovian Conditioning: Image and Action. Cognition 37, 105–131 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Shepard, R.N., Metzler, J.: Mental Rotation of Three-Dimensional Objects. Science 171, 701–703 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Cotterill, R.M.J.: Enchanted Looms: Conscious Networks in Brains and Computers. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1998)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Awh, E., Jonides, J.: Overlapping Mechanisms of Attention and Spatial Working Memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5, 119–126 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lauwereyns, J., Wisnewski, R., Keown, K., Govan, S.: Crosstalk between On-Line and Off-Line Processing of Visual Features. Psychological Research 70, 170–179 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Gerardin, E., Sirigu, A., Lehericy, S., Poline, J.-B., Gaymard, B., Marsault, C., Agid, Y., Le Bihan, D.: Partially Overlapping Neural Networks for Real and Imagined Hand Movements. Cerebral Cortex 10, 1093–1104 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lamm, C., Windischberger, C., Moser, E., Bauer, H.: The Functional Role of Dorso-Lateral Premotor Cortex During Mental Rotation: An Event-Related fMRI Study Separating Cognitive Processing Steps Using a Novel Task Paradigm. NeuroImage 36, 1374–1386 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Butz, M.V., Sigaud, O., Gérard, P.: Internal Models and Anticipations in Adaptive Learning Systems. In: Butz, M.V., Sigaud, O., Gérard, P. (eds.) Anticipatory Behavior in Adaptive Learning Systems. LNCS, vol. 2684, pp. 86–109. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Wolpert, D.M., Miall, R.C., Kawato, M.: Internal Models in the Cerebellum. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2, 338–347 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Miall, R.C., Wolpert, D.M.: Forward Models for Physiological Motor Control. Neural Networks 9, 1265–1279 (1996)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Frith, C.D., Blakemore, S.J., Wolpert, D.M.: Abnormalities in the Awareness and Control of Action. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 355, 1771–1788 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Bryson, J.J.: Mechanisms of Action Selection: Introduction to the Special Issue. Adaptive Behavior 15, 5–8 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Baldassarre, G.: A Biologically Plausible Model of Human Planning Based on Neural Networks and Dyna-Pi Models. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Adaptive Behaviour in Anticipatory Learning Systems (ABiALS 2002), pp. 40–60 (2002)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Baldassarre, G.: Forward and Bidirectional Planning Based on Reinforcement Learning and Neural Networks in a Simulated Robot. In: Butz, M.V., Sigaud, O., Gérard, P. (eds.) Anticipatory Behavior in Adaptive Learning Systems. LNCS, vol. 2684, pp. 179–200. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Marques, H.G., Holland, O.: Architectures for Functional Imagination. Neurocomputing 72, 743–759 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Humphries, M.D., Gurney, K.N.: The Role of Intra-Thalamic and Thalamocortical Circuits in Action Selection. Network: Computation in Neural Systems 13, 131–156 (2002)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Jirenhed, D.-A., Bengtsson, F., Hesslow, G.: Acquisition, Extinction, and Reacquisition of a Cerebellar Cortical Memory Trace. Journal of Neuroscience 27, 2493–2502 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Mauk, M.D., Medina, J.F., Nores, W.L., Ohyama, T.: Cerebellar Function: Coordination, Learning or Timing? Current Biology 10, 522–525 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Cisek, P., Kalaska, J.F.: Neural Correlates of Mental Rehearsal in Dorsal Premotor Cortex. Nature 431, 993–996 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Tucker, M., Ellis, R.: On the Relations between Seen Objects and Components of Potential Actions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 24, 830–846 (1998)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Cisek, P.: Cortical Mechanisms of Action Selection: The Affordance Competition Hypothesis. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. B 362, 1585–1600 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Prescott, T.J., Redgrave, P., Gurney, K.: Layered Control Architectures in Robots and Vertebrates. Adaptive Behavior 7, 99–127 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Wolpert, D., Miall, R.C., Kawato, M.: Internal Models in the Cerebellum. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2, 338–347 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Riegler, A.: Whose Anticipations? In: Butz, M.V., Sigaud, O., Gérard, P. (eds.) Anticipatory Behavior in Adaptive Learning Systems. LNCS, vol. 2684, pp. 11–22. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Doya, K., Uchibe, E.: The Cyber Rodent Project: Exploration of Adaptive Mechanisms for Self-Preservation and Self-Reproduction. Adaptive Behavior 13, 149–160 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Doya, K.: What Are the Computations of the Cerebellum, the Basal Ganglia and the Cerebral Cortex? Neural Networks 12, 961–974 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Houk, J.C., Buckingham, J.T., Barto, A.G.: Models of the Cerebellum and Motor Learning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19, 368–383 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Houk, J.C., Alford, S.: Computational Significance of the Cellular Mechanisms for Synaptic Plasticity in Purkinje Cells. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19, 457–460 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kettner, R.E., Mahamud, S., Leung, H.C., Sitkoff, N., Houk, J.C., Peterson, B.W., Barto, A.G.: Prediction of Complex Two-Dimensional Trajectories by a Cerebellar Model of Smooth Pursuit Eye Movement. Journal of Neurophysiology 77, 2115–2130 (1997)Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Medina, J.F., Carey, M.R., Lisberger, S.G.: The Representation of Time for Motor Learning. Neuron 45, 157–167 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Lethin, A.: Covert Agency with Proprioceptive Feedback. Journal of Consciousness Studies 12, 96–115 (2005)Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Yeo, C.H., Hesslow, G.: Cerebellum and Conditioned Reflexes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2, 322–330 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Prescott, T.J., Gurney, K., Redgrave, P.: Basal Ganglia. In: Arbib, M.A. (ed.) The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks, pp. 147–151. MIT Press, Cambridge (2002)Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Humphries, M.D., Stewart, R.D., Gurney, K.N.: A Physiologically Plausible Model of Action Selection and Oscillatory Activity in the Basal Ganglia. Journal of Neuroscience 26, 12921–12942 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Doya, K.: Reinforcement Learning: Computational Theory and Biological Mechanisms. HFSP Journal 1, 30–40 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Houk, J.C., Bastianen, C., Fansler, D., Fishbach, A., Fraser, D., Reber, P.J., Roy, S.A., Simo, L.S.: Action Selection and Refinement in Subcortical Loops through Basal Ganglia and Cerebellum. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 362, 1573–1584 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Sears, L.L., Logue, S.F., Steinmetz, J.E.: Involvement of the Ventrolateral Thalamic Nucleus in Rabbit Classical Eyeblink Conditioning. Behavioural Brain Research 74, 105–117 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Shanahan, M.: A Cognitive Architecture That Combines Internal Simulation with a Global Workspace. Consciousness and Cognition 15, 433–449 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Chiel, H.J., Beer, R.D.: The Brain Has a Body: Adaptive Behavior Emerges from Interactions of Nervous System, Body and Environment. Trends in Neurosciences 20, 553–557 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Blakemore, S.J., Frith, C.D., Wolpert, D.M.: Spatio-Temporal Prediction Modulates the Perception of Self-Produced Stimuli. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 11, 551–559 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Blakemore, S.J., Wolpert, D., Frith, C.: Why Can’t You Tickle Yourself? NeuroReport 11, R11–R16 (2000)Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Blakemore, S.J., Frith, C.D., Wolpert, D.M.: The Cerebellum Is Involved in Predicting the Sensory Consequences of Action. NeuroReport 12, 1879–1884 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Miall, R.C.: Connecting Mirror Neurons and Forward Models. NeuroReport 14, 2135 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Hoffmann, J.: Anticipatory Behavioral Control. In: Butz, M.V., Sigaud, O., Gérard, P. (eds.) Anticipatory Behavior in Adaptive Learning Systems. LNCS, vol. 2684, pp. 44–65. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Elsner, B., Hommel, B., Mentschel, C., Drzezga, A., Prinz, W., Conrad, B., Siebner, H.: Linking Actions and Their Perceivable Consequences in the Human Brain. NeuroImage 17, 364–372 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Kunde, W., Elsner, K., Kiesel, A.: No Anticipation–No Action: The Role of Anticipation in Action and Perception. Cognitive Processing 8, 71–78 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Fuster, J.M.: Upper Processing Stages of the Perception-Action Cycle. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8, 143–145 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Fuster, J.M.: Network Memory. Trends in Neurosciences 20, 451–459 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Gomez, C.M., Fernandez, A., Maestu, F., Amo, C., Gonzalez-Rosa, J.J., Vaquero, E., Ortiz, T.: Task-Specific Sensory and Motor Preparatory Activation Revealed by Contingent Magnetic Variation. Cognitive Brain Research 21, 59–68 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Kastner, S., Pinsk, M.A., De Weerd, P., Desimone, R., Ungerleider, L.G.: Increased Activity in Human Visual Cortex During Directed Attention in the Absence of Visual Stimulation. Neuron 22, 751–761 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Damasio, A.R.: Looking for Spinoza: Joy, Sorrow, and the Human Brain. Harcourt, Orlando (2003)Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Damasio, A.R.: Descartes’error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain. Penguin, New York (1994)Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Mountcastle, V.B.: The Columnar Organization of the Neocortex. Brain 120, 701–722 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Swanson, L.W.: Brain Architecture: Understanding the Basic Plan. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2003)Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Hawkins, J., Blakeslee, S.: On Intelligence. Henry Holt, New York (2004)Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Hansel, C., Artola, A., Singer, W.: Different Threshold Levels of Postsynaptic [Ca2+]I Have to Be Reached to Induce LTP and LTD in Neocortical Pyramidal Cells. Journal of Physiology-Paris 90, 317–319 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Damasio, A.R.: The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness. Harcourt Brace, New York (1999)Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Ziemke, T., Jirenhed, D.A., Hesslow, G.: Internal Simulation of Perception: A Minimal Neuro-Robotic Model. Neurocomputing 68, 85–104 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Svensson, H.: Representation as Internal Simulation: A Robotic Model. In: CogSci 2009: 31st Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (submitted)Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Dechent, P., Merboldt, K.-D., Frahm, J.: Is the Human Primary Motor Cortex Involved in Motor Imagery? Cognitive Brain Research 19, 138–144 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Zwaan, R.A.: The Immersed Experiencer: Toward an Embodied Theory of Language Comprehension. The Psychology of Learning and Motivation 44, 35–62 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Henrik Svensson
    • 1
  • Anthony F. Morse
    • 1
  • Tom Ziemke
    • 1
  1. 1.Informatics Research Centre, Cognition & Interaction (COIN) LabUniversity of SkövdeSkövdeSweden

Personalised recommendations