Advertisement

Anticipation of Time Spans: New Data from the Foreperiod Paradigm and the Adaptation of a Computational Model

  • Johannes Lohmann
  • Oliver Herbort
  • Annika Wagener
  • Andrea Kiesel
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5499)

Abstract

To act successfully, it is necessary to adjust the timing of one’s behavior to events in the environment. One way to examine human timing is the foreperiod paradigm. It requires experimental participants to react to events that occur at more or less unpredictable time points after a warning stimulus (foreperiod). In the current article, we first review the empirical and theoretical literature on the foreperiod paradigm briefly. Second, we examine how behavior depends on either a uniform or peaked (at 500ms) probability distribution of many (15) possible foreperiods. We report adaptation to different probability distribution with a pronounced adaptation for the peaked (more predictable) distribution. Third, we show that Los and colleagues’ [1] computational model accounts for our results. A discussion of specific findings and general implications concludes the paper.

Keywords

Target Stimulus Distribution Experiment Preceding Trial Psychological Refractory Period Lateral Readiness Potential 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Los, S., Knol, D., Boers, R.: The foreperiod effect revisited: conditioning as a basis for nonspecific preparation. Acta Psychologica 106, 121–145 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bertelson, P., Tisseyre, F.: The time-course of preparation with regular and irregular foreperiods. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 20, 297–300 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Woodrow, H.: The measurement of attention. Psychological Monographs 5(76), 1–158 (1914)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Niemi, P., Näätänen, R.: Foreperiod and simple reaction time. Psychological Bulletin 89, 133–162 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Allan, L.G., Gibbon, J.: Human bisection at the geometric mean. Learning and Motivation 22, 39–58 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wearden, J.H., Lejeune, H.: Scalar properties in human timing: conformity and violations. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 4, 569–587 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Elithorn, A., Lawrence, C.: Central inhibition - some refractory observations. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 11, 211–220 (1955)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mattes, S., Ulrich, R.: Response force is sensitive to the temporal uncertainty of response stimuli. Perception and Psychophysics 59, 1089–1097 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Näätänen, R.: The diminishing time-uncertainty with the lapse of time after the warning-signal in reaction-time experiments with varying fore-periods. Acta Psycologica 34, 399–419 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Alegria, J.: Sequential effects of foreperiod duration: Some strategical factors in tasks involving time uncertainty. In: Alegria, J. (ed.) Attention and Performance, pp. 1–10. Academic Press, London (1975)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Karlin, L.: Reaction time as a function of foreperiod duration and variability. Journal of Experimental Psychology 16, 185–191 (1959)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Thomas, E.A.: Reaction-time studies: The anticipation and interaction of response. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology 20, 1–29 (1967)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Drazin, B.: Effects of foreperiod, foreperiod variability, and probability of stimulus occurence on simple reaction time. Journal of Experimental Psychology 62, 43–50 (1961)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bausenhart, K.M., Rolke, B., Hackley, S.A., Ulrich, R.: The locus of temporal preparation effects: Evidence from the psychological refractory period paradigm. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 13, 536–542 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fischer, R., Schubert, T., Liepelt, R.: Accessory stimuli modulate effects of non-conscious priming. Perception and Psychophysics 69(1), 9–22 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hackley, S.A., Valle-Inclán, F.: Which stages of processing are speeded by a warning signal? Biological Psychology 64, 27–45 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kiesel, A., Miller, J.: Impact of contingency manipulations on accessory stimulus effects. Perception and Psychophysics 69, 1117–1125 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Los, S.A., Agter, F.: Reweighting sequential effects across different distributions of foreperiods: Segregating elementary contributions to nonspecific preparation. Perception & Psychophysics 67(7), 1161–1170 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Miller, J., Franz, V., Ulrich, R.: Effects of auditory stimulus intensity on response force in simple, go/no-go, and choice rt tasks. Perception and Psychophysics 61, 107–119 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Müller-Gethmann, H., Ulrich, R., Rinkenauer, G.: Locus of the effect of temporal preparation: Evidence from the lateral readiness potential. Psychophysiology 40, 597–611 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gibbon, J.: Scalar expectancy theory and weber’s law in animal timing. Psychological Review 84, 279–325 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Killeen, P.R., Fetterman, J.G.: A behavioral theory of timing. Psychological Review 95(2), 274–295 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Treisman, M.: Temporal discrimination and the indifference interval: Implications for a model of the ïnternal clock.̈ Psychological Monographs 77, 1–31 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Machado, A.: Learning the temporal dynamics of behavior. Psychological Review 104(2), 241–265 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Balkenius, C., Morén, J.: Dynamics of a classical conditioning model. Autonomous Robots 7, 41–56 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Grossberg, S., Schmajuk, N.: Neural dynamics of adaptive timing and temporal discrimination during associative learning. Neural Networks 2, 79–102 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Staddon, J.E.R., Higa, J.J.: Multiple time scales in simple habituation. Psychological Review 103(4), 720–733 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Los, S., Van den Heuvel, C.E.: Intentional and unintentional contributions of nonspecific preparation during reaction time foreperiods. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 27, 370–386 (2001)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Schneider, W., Eschman, A., Zuccolotto, A.: E-prime user’s guide. Psychology Software Tools Inc., Pittsburgh (2002)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nelder, J.A., Mead, R.: A simplex method for function minimization. Computer Journal 7, 308–313 (1965)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Nobre, A.C., Correa, A., Coull, J.T.: The hazards of time. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 17, 465–470 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Johannes Lohmann
    • 1
  • Oliver Herbort
    • 1
  • Annika Wagener
    • 1
  • Andrea Kiesel
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of WürzburgWürzburg

Personalised recommendations