Evaluation of Pointing Efficiency on Small Screen Touch User Interfaces

  • Ryosuke Fujioka
  • Takayuki Akiba
  • Hidehiko Okada
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5618)


Researchers have been investigating screen designs for small screen touch user interfaces (UIs), but further research is still required for smaller-screen devices including current smart phones. This paper reports on our evaluation of pointing efficiency on devices with touch-by-stylus small screen UIs. User performances were measured by experiments with three devices: a mobile phone, a PDA and a tablet PC. The size of pointing targets was designed so that the target index of difficulty (ID) by Fitts’ law ranged in a consistent interval among the three devices. Users’ pointing speed and accuracy were compared in terms of throughput and error rate respectively. It is found that the throughput and the error rate for the mobile phone were significantly smaller than those for the PDA and the tablet PC. It is also found that the error rate was not significantly larger in the case where users performed tasks with the mobile phone held by their hands than in the case where they did with the mobile phone put on desktop, although it was in the case of the PDA.


usability touch user interface small screen throughput error rate Fitts’ law 


  1. 1.
    McClintock, M., Hoiem, D.: Minimal Target Size in a Pen-based System. In: Abridged Proc. of 5th Int. Conf. on Human-Computer Interaction (HCI International 1993), p. 243 (1993)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Douglas, S.A., Mithal, A.K.: The Ergonomics of Computer Pointing Devices. Springer, Heidelberg (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sarah, A., Douglas, S.A., Kirkpatrick, A.E., MacKenzie, I.S.: Testing Pointing Device Performance and User Assessment with the ISO 9241, Part 9 Standard. In: Proc. of ACM conf. on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 1999), pp. 215–222 (1999)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Soukoreff, R.W., MacKenzie, I.S.: Towards a Standard for Pointing Device Evaluation, Perspectives on 27 Years of Fitts’ Law Research in HCI. Int. J. of Human-Computer Studies 61(6), 751–789 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Oehl, M., Sutter, C., Ziefle, M.: Considerations on Efficient Touch Interfaces - How Display Size Influences the Performance in an Applied Pointing Task. In: Smith, M.J., Salvendy, G. (eds.) HCII 2007. LNCS, vol. 4557, pp. 136–143. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fitts, P.M.: The Information Capacity of the Human Motor System in Controlling the Amplitude of Movement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 47(6), 381–391 (1954)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    MacKenzie, I.S.: Fitts’s Law as a Research and Design Tool in Human-Computer Interaction. Human-Computer Interaction 7, 91–139 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Plamondon, R., Alimi, A.M.: Speed/Accuracy Trade-offs in Target-Directed Movements. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20(2), 279–349 (1997)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    ANSI/NCITS 354-2001, Common Industry Format for Usability Test Reports (2001)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    ISO 9241, Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with Visual Display Terminals (VDTs) - Part 9: Requirements for Non-Keyboard Input Devices (2000)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    MacKenzie, I.S., Buxton, W.: Extending Fitts’ Law to Two-dimensional Tasks. In: Proc. of ACM Conf. on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 1992), pp. 219–226 (1992)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ryosuke Fujioka
    • 1
  • Takayuki Akiba
    • 2
  • Hidehiko Okada
    • 2
  1. 1.Kobe Sogo Sokki Co. Ltd.KobeJapan
  2. 2.Kyoto Sangyo UniversityKyotoJapan

Personalised recommendations