Search Mathematical Formulas by Mathematical Formulas

  • Yoshinori Hijikata
  • Hideki Hashimoto
  • Shogo Nishida
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5617)


Users cannot search information by mathematical formulas as queries in existing search engines. This is because mathematical formulas are not expressed as a sequence of characters. Some formulas are expressed in a complex structure like fractional numbers and index numbers. We present a search engine for MathML objects using the structure of mathematical formulas. The system makes the inverted indices by using the DOM structure of the MathML object. We proposed three types of index. One type is constructed from some paths of the DOM structure and expressed in XPath. The other type is constructed by encoding the nodes in the same level in DOM structure. The third type is a hybrid method of them. This paper describes the experiment conducted to study the effectiveness of those indices.


MathML search engine mathematical formula index inverted file 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Kopka, H., Daly, P.W.: A Guide to LaTeX, 3rd edn. Addison-Wesley, Harlow (1999)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    W3C: M3C Math Home (1998),
  3. 3.
    Nakanishi, T., et al.: An Implementation Method of Composite Association Retrieval System for Data of Mathematical Formulas. DBSJ Letters 4(1) (2005)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    W3C: M3C DOM Home (1998),
  5. 5.
    W3C: M3C XPath Home (1999),
  6. 6.
    WOLFRAM Research: MATHML CENTRAL (2007),
  7. 7.
    NICT: The EDR Electronic Dictionary (1999),
  8. 8.
    Kohno, H., et al.: Search Engine and Agent. University of Tokyo Press (2002)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kita, K., et al.: Information Retrieval Algorithm. Kyoritsu Publisher (2002)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoshinori Hijikata
    • 1
  • Hideki Hashimoto
    • 1
  • Shogo Nishida
    • 1
  1. 1.Graduate School of Engineering ScienceOsaka UniversityOsakaJapan

Personalised recommendations