Strategies and Methods for Creating Symbolic Electroacoustic Scores in ENP

  • Mika Kuuskankare
  • Mikael Laurson
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5493)


In this paper we explore the potential of Expressive Notation Package (ENP) in representing electroacoustic scores. We use the listening score by Rainer Wehinger–originally created for György Ligeti’s electronic piece Articulation–as reference material. Our objective is to recreate a small excerpt form the score using an ENP tool called Expression Designer (ED). ED allows the user to create new graphical expressions with programmable behavior. In this paper we aim to demonstrate how a collection of specific graphic symbols found in Articulation can be implemented using ED. We also discuss how this information can be later manipulated and accessed for the needs of a sonic realization, for example.


Electroacoustic music Symbolic electroacoustic score ENP PWGL sonification visual tools 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Kuuskankare, M.: The Expressive Notation Package. Ph.D thesis, Sibelius Academy, DocMus – Department of Doctoral Studies in Musical Performance and Research (2006)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brindle, R.S.: The New Music: The Avant-garde since 1945. Oxford University Press, Oxford (1987)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Karkoschka, E.: Das Schriftbild der Neuen Musik. Hermann Moeck Verlag, Celle (1966)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Laurson, M., Erkut, C., Välimäki, V., Kuuskankare, M.: Methods for Modeling Realistic Playing in Acoustic Guitar Synthesis. Computer Music Journal 25(3), 38–49 (Fall 2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Välimäki, V., Penttinen, H., Knif, J., Laurson, M., Erkut, C.: Sound Synthesis of the Harpsichord Using a Computationally Efficient Physical Model. EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing (2004)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Penttinen, H., Pakarinen, J., Välimäki, V., Laurson, M., Li, H., Leman, M.: Model-Based Sound Synthesis of the Guqin. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 120(6), 4052–4063 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Välimäki, V., Laurson, M., Erkut, C.: Commuted Waveguide Synthesis of the Clavichord. Computer Music Journal 27(1), 71–82 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cooper, A.: About Face. The Essentials of User Interface Design. IDG Books, Foster City (1995)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kuuskankare, M., Laurson, M.: ENP-Expressions, Score-BPF as a Case Study. In: Proceedings of International Computer Music Conference, Singapore, pp. 103–106 (2003)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Woo, M., Neider, J., Davis, T., Shreiner, D.: OpenGL Programming Guide, 3rd edn. Addison Wesley, Massachusetts (1999)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kuuskankare, M., Laurson, M.: ENP Expression Designer - a Visual Tool for Creating User Definable Expressions. In: International Computer Music Conference, Barcelona, Spain, pp. 307–310 (2005)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lohner, H.: The UPIC system: A user’s report. Computer Music Journal 10(4), 42–49 (Winter 1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Farbood, M.M., Pasztor, E., Jennings, K.: Hyperscore: A graphical sketchpad for novice composers. IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 24(1), 50–54 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Farbood, M., Kaufman, H., Jennings, K.: Composing with hyperscore: An intuitive interface for visualizing musical structure. In: International Computer Music Conference (2007)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Geslin, Y., Lefevre, A.: Sound and musical representation: the acousmographe software. In: International Computer Music Conference, Miami, USA (2004)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Puckette, M.: Using Pd as a score language. In: Proceedings of International Computer Music Conference, pp. 184–187 (2002)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lindemann, E., de Cecco, M.: Animal–a rapid prototyping environment for computer music systems. Computer Music Journal 15(3), 78–100 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Haus, G.: EMPS: A system for graphic transcription of electronic music scores. Computer Music Journal 7(3), 31–36 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Buxton, W., Sniderman, R., Reeves, W., Patel, S., Baecker, R.: The evolution of the sssp score editing tools. In: Roads, C., Strawn, J. (eds.) Foundations of Computer Music, pp. 376–402. MIT Press, Cambridge (1985)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
  21. 21.
  22. 22.
    Risatti, H.A.: New Music Vocabulary. A Guide to Notational Signs for Contemporary Music. Univ. of Illinois Press, Urbana (1973)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Laurson, M.: PATCHWORK: A Visual Programming Language and some Musical Applications. Studia musica no.6, doctoral dissertation, Sibelius Academy, Helsinki (1996)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kuuskankare, M., Laurson, M.: Intelligent Scripting in ENP using PWConstraints. In: Proceedings of International Computer Music Conference, Miami, USA, pp. 684–687 (2004)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Laurson, M., Kuuskankare, M.: Extensible Constraint Syntax Through Score Accessors. In: Journées d’Informatique Musicale, Paris, France (2005)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Laurson, M., Norilo, V., Kuuskankare, M.: PWGLSynth: A Visual Synthesis Language for Virtual Instrument Design and Control. Computer Music Journal 29(3), 29–41 (Fall 2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Laurson, M., Kuuskankare, M.: Towards Idiomatic and Flexible Score-based Gestural Control with a Scripting Language. In: Proceedings of NIME 2008 Conference, Genova, Italy, pp. 34–37 (2008)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mika Kuuskankare
    • 1
  • Mikael Laurson
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Music and TechnologySibelius AcademyHelsinkiFinland

Personalised recommendations