Arbuscular Mycorrhiza, Heavy Metal,and Salt Tolerance

  • Hermann BotheEmail author
  • Marjana Regvar
  • Katarzyna Turnau
Part of the Soil Biology book series (SOILBIOL, volume 19)


More than 80% of all higher plants are colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) under diverse stress conditions. The extent of mycorrhizal colonization in plants that grow in heavy metal soils (metallophytes) or salt marshes (halophytes) is species dependent. Specially adapted AMF have repeatedly been reported to alleviate the toxicity of heavy metals to plants. Factors governing the heavy metal tolerance conferred by AMF have been elucidated. Compared to this, the current state of knowledge regarding AMF and salt tolerance appears to be underdeveloped, despite the enormous potential applications of this field. This article summarizes heavy metal and salt toxicity to plants and the potential impacts of AMF in both of these forms of toxicity. Currently, the main constraint on applications of AMF is the inability to grow them without the need for a symbiotic partner.


Heavy Metal Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Salt Marsh Suppression Subtractive Hybridization Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Colonization 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hermann Bothe
    • 1
    Email author
  • Marjana Regvar
    • 2
  • Katarzyna Turnau
    • 3
  1. 1.Botanical InstituteThe University of CologneCologneGermany
  2. 2.Department of BiologyUniversity of LjubljanaLjubljanaSlovenia
  3. 3.Department of Ecological Microbiology, Institute of Environmental SciencesJagiellonian UniversityKrakówPoland

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