Applying Model Transformations to Optimizing Real-Time QoS Configurations in DRE Systems

  • Amogh Kavimandan
  • Aniruddha Gokhale
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5581)


The quality of a software architecture for component-based distributed systems is defined not just by its source code but also by other systemic artifacts, such as the assembly, deployment, and configuration of the application components and their component middleware. In the context of distributed, real-time, and embedded (DRE) component-based systems, bin packing algorithms and schedulability analysis have been used to make deployment and configuration decisions. However, these algorithms make only coarse-grained node assignments but do not indicate how components are allocated to different middleware containers on the node, which are known to impact runtime system performance and resource consumption. This paper presents a model transformation-based algorithm that combines user-specified quality of service (QoS) requirements with the node assignments to provide a finer level of granularity and precision in the deployment and configuration decisions. A beneficial side effect of our work lies in how these decisions can be leveraged by additional backend performance optimization techniques. We evaluate our approach and compare it against the existing state-of-the-art in the context of a representative DRE system.


Model-driven engineering Graph/model transformations component-based systems deployment and configuration 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Hatcliff, J., Deng, W., Dwyer, M., Jung, G., Prasad, V.: Cadena: An Integrated Development, Analysis, and Verification Environment for Component-based Systems. In: Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Software Engineering, Portland, OR, pp. 160–172 (May 2003)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    de Niz, D., Rajkumar, R.: Partitioning Bin-Packing Algorithms for Distributed Real-time Systems. International Journal of Embedded Systems 2(3), 196–208 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ghosh, S., Rajkumar, R., Hansen, J., Lehoczky, J.: Integrated QoS-aware Resource Management and Scheduling with Multi-resource Constraints. Real-Time Syst. 33(1-3), 7–46 (2006)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Stankovic, J.A., Zhu, R., Poornalingam, R., Lu, C., Yu, Z., Humphrey, M., Ellis, B.: VEST: An Aspect-Based Composition Tool for Real-Time Systems. In: RTAS 2003: Proceedings of the The 9th IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium, Toronto, Canada, pp. 58–69. IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gu, Z., Kodase, S., Wang, S., Shin, K.G.: A Model-Based Approach to System-Level Dependency and Real-Time Analysis of Embedded Software. In: RTAS 2003: Proceedings of the The 9th IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium, Toronto, Canada, pp. 78–85. IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos (2003)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rozenberg, G.: Handbook of Graph Grammars and Computing by Graph Transformation. Foundations, vol. 1. World Scientific Publishing Company, Singapore (1997)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sendall, S., Kozaczynski, W.: Model Transformation: The Heart and Soul of Model-Driven Software Development. IEEE Software 20(5), 42–45 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Karsai, G., Agrawal, A., Shi, F., Sprinkle, J.: On the Use of Graph Transformation in the Formal Specification of Model Interpreters. Journal of Universal Computer Science 9(11), 1296–1321 (2003), Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Object Management Group: Lightweight CCM RFP. realtime/02-11-27 edn. (November 2002)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Balasubramanian, K., Schmidt, D.C.: Physical Assembly Mapper: A Model-driven Optimization Tool for QoS-enabled Component Middleware. In: Proceedings of the 14th IEEE Real-time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium, St. Louis, MO, USA, pp. 123–134 (April 2008)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Object Management Group: Real-time CORBA Specification. 1.2 edn. (January 2005)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wang, N., Schmidt, D.C., Parameswaran, K., Kircher, M.: Applying Reflective Middleware Techniques to Optimize a QoS-enabled CORBA Component Model Implementation. In: 24th Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC), Taipei, Taiwan, pp. 492–499. IEEE, Los Alamitos (2000)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sharp, D.C.: Reducing Avionics Software Cost Through Component Based Product Line Development. In: Software Product Lines: Experience and Research Directions, vol. 576, pp. 353–370 (August 2000)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lédeczi, Á., Bakay, Á., Maróti, M., Völgyesi, P., Nordstrom, G., Sprinkle, J., Karsai, G.: Composing Domain-Specific Design Environments. Computer 34(11), 44–51 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Subramonian, V., Shen, L.J., Gill, C., Wang, N.: The Design and Performance of Configurable Component Middleware for Distributed Real-Time and Embedded Systems. In: RTSS 2004: Proceedings of the 25th IEEE International Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS 2004), Lisbon, Portugal, pp. 252–261. IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos (2004)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Krishna, A., Gokhale, A., Schmidt, D.C., Hatcliff, J., Ranganath, V.: Context-Specific Middleware Specialization Techniques for Optimizing Software Product-line Architectures. In: Proceedings of EuroSys 2006, Leuven, Belgium, pp. 205–218 (April 2006)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hunleth, F., Cytron, R.K.: Footprint and Feature Management Using Aspect-oriented Programming Techniques. In: Proceedings of the Joint Conference on Languages, Compilers and Tools for Embedded Systems (LCTES 2002), Berlin, Germany, pp. 38–45. ACM Press, New York (2002)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Demir, Ö.E., Dévanbu, P., Wohlstadter, E., Tai, S.: An Aspect-oriented Approach to Bypassing Middleware Layers. In: AOSD 2007: Proceedings of the 6th international conference on Aspect-oriented software development, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, pp. 25–35. ACM Press, New York (2007)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zhang, C., Gao, D., Jacobsen, H.A.: Towards Just-in-time Middleware Architectures. In: AOSD 2005: Proceedings of the 4th international conference on Aspect-oriented software development, Chicago, Illinois, pp. 63–74. ACM Press, New York (2005)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lee, S., Lee, K.W., Ryu, K.D., Choi, J.D., Verma, D.: ISE01-4: Deployment Time Performance Optimization of Internet Services. In: Global Telecommunications Conference, 2006. GLOBECOM 2006, pp. 1–6. IEEE, San Francisco (2006)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Diaconescu, A., Mos, A., Murphy, J.: Automatic performance management in component based software systems. In: ICAC 2004: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Autonomic Computing (ICAC 2004), New York, NY, USA, pp. 214–221. IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zinky, J.A., Bakken, D.E., Schantz, R.: Architectural Support for Quality of Service for CORBA Objects. Theory and Practice of Object Systems 3(1), 1–20 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gill, C.D., Cytron, R., Schmidt, D.C.: Middleware Scheduling Optimization Techniques for Distributed Real-time and Embedded Systems. In: Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on Object-oriented Real-time Dependable Systems, San Diego, CA. IEEE, Los Alamitos (2002)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zhang, R., Lu, C., Abdelzaher, T.F., Stankovic, J.A.: ControlWare: A Middleware Architecture for Feedback Control of Software Performance. In: ICDCS 2002: Proceedings of the 22 nd International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), Vienna, Austria, pp. 301–310 (2002)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lu, C., Stankovic, J.A., Son, S.H., Tao, G.: Feedback Control Real-Time Scheduling: Framework, Modeling, and Algorithms. Real-Time Syst 23(1-2), 85–126 (2002)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kavimandan, A., Gokhale, A.: Automated Middleware QoS Configuration Techniques using Model Transformations. In: Proceedings of the 14th IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS 2008), St. Louis, MO, USA, pp. 93–102 (April 2008)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Deb, K., Gupta, H.: Searching for Robust Pareto-Optimal Solutions in Multi-objective Optimization. In: Coello Coello, C.A., Hernández Aguirre, A., Zitzler, E. (eds.) EMO 2005. LNCS, vol. 3410, pp. 150–164. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amogh Kavimandan
    • 1
  • Aniruddha Gokhale
    • 1
  1. 1.ISIS, Dept. of EECSVanderbilt UniversityNashvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations