Emergence of Growth and Structural Tendencies During Adaptive Evolution of System

  • Andrzej Gecow
Part of the Understanding Complex Systems book series (UCS)


We consider (continuing earlier article in this book) functioning directed networks like Kauffman networks or aggregate of automata which have some external outputs. A measure of fitness is defined on the external output signals. We use more than two equally probable signal variants which define our systems as chaotic (and different than RBN-familly and RNS and RWN), however they become really chaotic and complex when they cross certain complexity threshold during their growth. Above this threshold adaptive condition describing Darwinian mechanism creates some structural effects which we name ‘structural tendencies’ and investigate in this paper. We found mechanisms connected to damage spreading which lead to these tendencies. Different network types are considered including random Erdős-Rényi and BA scale free networks. Our model describes a wide range of systems like living objects and human-designed systems because they all grow under adaptive condition and are complex. The structural tendencies are therefore commonly met, however they are known only on an intuitive level. Old classical regularities of ontogeny evolution like terminal modifications and terminal additions are such tendencies. They are contemporarily forgotten and even negated due to lack of their explanations which we propose in this paper. One of such tendencies is the growth of the system.


Boolean Network Network Growth Adaptive Condition Free Process Structural Tendency 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrzej Gecow
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of PaleobiologyPolish Academy of ScienceWarsawPoland

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