An Observation on Non-Malleable Witness-Indistinguishability and Non-Malleable Zero-Knowledge

  • Zongyang Zhang
  • Zhenfu Cao
  • Rong Ma
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5532)


Ostrovsky et al. [1] gave the first definition of non-malleable witness-indistinguishable argument systems. A surprising result given by them showed this notion was incomparable with the notion of non-malleable zero-knowledge. However, they only discussed their relations in the interactive setting. In this paper, we make an observation on relation between the two notions in the non-interactive setting. We show the two notions are still incomparable: that is, there are non-malleable non-interactive zero-knowledge proof systems that are not non-malleable non-interactive witness-indistinguishable, and vice versa.


Proof System Commitment Scheme Common Reference String Trapdoor Permutation Plain Model 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zongyang Zhang
    • 1
  • Zhenfu Cao
    • 1
  • Rong Ma
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiP.R. China

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