Facial Comparisons by Subject Matter Experts: Their Role in Biometrics and Their Training

  • Nicole A. Spaun
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5558)


The fingerprint biometrics community has accepted the involvement of human examiners as the ultimate verifiers of the output of automated systems, especially in latent fingerprint cases. Likewise, the facial biometrics community should recognize the importance of human experts working in association with the automated process, particularly when analyzing uncontrolled images. As facial biometric systems become more common, more facial image examiners will need to be trained. Currently there are no systematic training programs in place for these examiners. This paper outlines the knowledge needed to conduct facial examinations, and thus should be taught in a successful training program. A facial image comparison expert must be versed in many subjects including: comparative science, image science and processing, bones of the head, muscles of the face, properties of the skin, aging and alteration, legal issues and case law, and the history of facial identifications and photographic comparisons.


Biometrics forensics facial recognition facial identification 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicole A. Spaun
    • 1
  1. 1.Federal Bureau of Investigation Forensic Audio, Video and Image Analysis UnitQuanticoUSA

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