Mechanical Ventilation

  • Jean-Michel ArnalEmail author
  • Eduardo Bancalari
  • Katherine C. Clement
  • Sherry E. Courtney
  • Claude Danan
  • Steven M. Donn
  • Xavier Durrmeyer
  • Guillaume Emeriaud
  • Sandrine Essouri
  • Francesco Grasso
  • Mark J. Heulitt
  • Brian P. Kavanagh
  • Martin Keszler
  • Paul Ouellet
  • Jane J. Pillow
  • Ronald C. SandersJr.
  • Thomas Schaffer
  • Andreas Schulze
  • Sunil K. Sinha


A mechanical ventilator is an automated device that provides all or part of the work of breathing for patients with impaired respiratory or neurologic function. In order to safely apply a mechanical ventilator to a patient for continuous use, four requisites must be met (Table 8.1). First, there must be a way to create a stable attachment of the device to the patient, referred to as the interface. Second, there must be an energy source to drive the device. Third, the size and timing of the breaths must be regulated or controlled. Fourth, there must be a system to adequately monitor the performance of the ventilator and the status of the patient. This should include adjustable alarms to alert the clinician to undesirable and potentially dangerous conditions Chatburn (2003).


  1. Allen GB (2006) To breathe or not to breathe: is spontaneous ventilation the answer for acute lung injury? Crit Care Med 34:1844–1845PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Allo JC, Beck JC, Brander L, Brunet F, Slutsky AS, Sinderby CA (2006) Influence of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist and positive end-expiratory pressure on breathing pattern in rabbits with acute lung injury. Crit Care Med 34:2997–3004PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ambalavanan N, Carlo WA (2006) Ventilatory strategies in the prevention and management of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Semin Perinatol 30(4):192–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Antonelli M, Conti G, Rocco M, Bufi M, De Blasi RA, Vivino G, Gasparetto A, Meduri GU (1998) A comparison of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation and conventional mechanical ventilation in patients with acute respiratory failure. N Engl J Med 339:429–435PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Antonelli M, Conti G, Pelosi P, Gregoretti C, Pennisi MA, Costa R, Severgnini P, Chiaranda M, Proietti R (2002) New treatment of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure: noninvasive pressure support ventilation delivered by helmet–a pilot controlled trial. Crit Care Med 30:602–608PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Antonelli M, Pennisi MA, Pelosi P, Gregoretti C, Squadrone V, Rocco M, Cecchini L, Chiumello D, Severgnini P, Proietti R, Navalesi P, Conti G (2004) Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation using a helmet in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a feasibility study. Anesthesiology 100:16–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Arnal JM, Nafati C, Wysocki M et al (2004) Utilization of adaptive support ventilation (ASV) in a polyvalent intensive care unit [abstract]. Intensive Care Med 30:S84Google Scholar
  8. Arnal JM, Garcin F, Wysocki M et al (2006) Adaptive support ventilation (ASV) automatically adapts a protective ventilation in ARDS patients. Intensive Care Med 32:S120Google Scholar
  9. Arnal JM, Wysocki M, Nafati C et al (2008) Automatic selection of breathing pattern using adaptive support ventilation. Intensive Care Med 34:75–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Artigas A, Bernard GR, Carlet J et al (1998) The American-European consensus conference on ARDS, part 2: ventilatory, pharmacologic, supportive therapy, study design strategies and issues related to recovery and remodeling. Intensive Care Med 24:378–398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Aslanian P, El Atrous S, Isabey D, Valente E, Corsi D, Harf A, Lemaire F, Brochard L (1998) Effects of flow triggering on breathing effort during partial ventilatory support. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 157:135–143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Attar MA, Donn SM (2002) Mechanisms of ventilator-induced lung injury in premature infants. Semin Neonatol 7:353–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Aziz HF, Martin JB, Moore JJ (1999) The pediatric disposable end-tidal carbon dioxide detector role in endotracheal intubation in newborns. J Perinatol 19:110–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bancalari E, Garcia O, Jesse MJ (1973) Effects of continuous negative pressure on lung mechanics in idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome. Pediatrics 51:485–493PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bancalari A, Gerhardt T, Bancalari E, Suguihara C, Hehre D, Reifenberg L, Goldberg RN (1987) Gas trapping with high-frequency ventilation: jet versus oscillatory ventilation. J Pediatr 110:617–622PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bates JHT (1998) Assessment of mechanics. In: Mrini JJ, Slutsky AS (eds) Physiologic basis of ventilatory support. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 231–259Google Scholar
  17. Bates JHT, Baconier P, Milic-Emili J (1988) A theoretical analysis of interrupter technique for measuring respiratory mechanics. J Appl Physiol 64:2204–2214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Baun M, Benzer H, Putensen C, Koller W (1989) Biphasic positive airway pressure (Bipap): a new form of augmented ventilation. Anaesthesist 38:452–458Google Scholar
  19. Beck J, Sinderby C, Lindstrom L, Grassino A (1996) Influence of bipolar esophageal electrode positioning on measurements of human crural diaphragm electromyogram. J Appl Physiol 81:1434–1449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Beck J, Gottfried SB, Navalesi P, Skrobik Y, Comtois N, Rossini M, Sinderby C (2001) Electrical activity of the diaphragm during pressure support ventilation in acute respiratory failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 164:419–424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Beck J, Tucci M, Emeriaud G, Lacroix J, Sinderby C (2004) Prolonged neural expiratory time induced by mechanical ventilation in infants. Pediatr Res 55:747–754PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Beck J, Weinberg J, Hamnegard CH, Spahija J, Olofson J, Grimby G, Sinderby C (2006) Diaphragmatic function in advanced duchenne muscular dystrophy. Neuromuscul Disord 16:161–167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Beck J, Campoccia F, Allo JC, Brander L, Brunet F, Slutsky AS, Sinderby C (2007) Improved synchrony and respiratory unloading by neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (nava) in lung-injured rabbits. Pediatr Res 61:289–294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Beck J, Brander L, Slutsky AS, Reilly MC, Dunn MS, Sinderby C (2008) Non-invasive neurally adjusted ventilatory assist in rabbits with acute lung injury. Intensive Care Med 34:316–323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Beck J, Reilly M, Grasselli G, Mirabella L, Slutsky AS, Dunn MS, Sinderby C (2009) Patient-ventilator interaction during neurally adjusted ventilatory assist in low birth weight infants. Pediatr Res 65:663–668PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Bellani G, Patroniti N, Greco M, Foti G, Pesenti A (2008) The use of helmets to deliver non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure in hypoxemic acute respiratory failure. Minerva Anestesiol 74:651–656PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Benditt JO, Pollock M, Roa J, Celli B (1993) Transtracheal delivery of gas decreases the oxygen cost of breathing. Am Rev Respir Dis 147:1207–1210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Bengtsson JA, Edberg KE (2010) Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist in children: an observational study. Pediatr Crit Care Med 11(2):253–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Bergofsky EH, Hurewitz AN (1989) Airway insufflation: physiologic effects on acute and chronic gas exchange in humans. Am Rev Respir Dis 140:885–890PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Bernstein G, Heldt GP, Mannino FL (1994) Increased and more consistent tidal volume during synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation in newborn infants. Respir Crit Care Med 150:1444–1448Google Scholar
  31. Bernstein G, Knodel E, Heldt G (1995) Airway leak size in neonates and autocycling of three flow-triggered ventilators. Crit Care Med 23:1739–1744PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Bernstein G, Mannino F, Heldt G et al (1996) Randomized multicenter trial comparing synchronized and conventional intermittent mandatory ventilation in neonates. J Pediatr 128:453–463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Bhutani VK (2002) Clinical application of pulmonary function and graphics. Semin Neonatol 7:391–399PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Biernson GA, Ward JE (1958) A servopressure control system for the iron lung. Proc IRE 46:628Google Scholar
  35. Blanch L, Bernabe F, Lucangelo U (2005) Measurement of air trapping, intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure and dynamic hyperinflation in mechanically ventilated patients. Respir Care 50:110–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Bonmarchand G, Chevron V, Menard JF, Girault C, Moritz-Berthelot F, Pasquis P, Leroy J (1999) Effects of pressure ramp slope values on the work of breathing during pressure support ventilation in restrictive patients. Crit Care Med 27:715–722PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Borelli M, Benini A, Denkevitz T, Acciaro C, Foti G, Pesenti A (1998) Effects of continuous negative extrathoracic pressure versus positive end expiratory pressure in acute lung injury patients. Crit Care Med 26:1025–1031PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Boros SJ, Mammel MC, Coleman JM, Horcher P, Gordon MJ, Bing DR (1989) Comparison of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation and high-frequency jet ventilation in cats with normal lungs. Pediatr Pulmonol 7:35–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Brander L, Leong-Poi H, Beck J, Brunet F, Hutchison SJ, Slutsky AS, Sinderby C (2009a) Titration and implementation of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist in critically ill patients. Chest 135:695–703PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Brander L, Sinderby C, Lecomte F, Leong-Poi H, Bell D, Beck J, Tsoporis JN, Vaschetto R, Schultz MJ, Parker TG et al (2009b) Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist decreases ventilator-induced lung injury and non-pulmonary organ dysfunction in rabbits with acute lung injury. Intensive Care Med 35:1979–1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Breatnach C, Conlon NP, Stack M, Healy M, O’Hare BP (2010) A prospective crossover comparison of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist and pressure-support ventilation in a pediatric and neonatal intensive care unit population. Pediatr Crit Care Med 11:7–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Brochard L (2002) Intrinsic (or auto-) PEEP during controlled mechanical ventilation. Intensive Care Med 28:1376–1378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Brochard L, Lellouche F (2006) Pressure-support ventilation. In: Tobin MJ (ed) Principles and practice of mechanical ventilation. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 221–250Google Scholar
  44. Brochard L, Harf A, Lorino H, Lemaire F (1989) Inspiratory pressure support prevents diaphragmatic fatigue during weaning from mechanical ventilation. Am Rev Respir Dis 139:513–521PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Brunner JX (2001) Principles and history of closed-loop controlled ventilation. Respir Care Clin N Am 7(3):341–362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Brunner JX (2002) History and principles of closed-loop control applied to mechanical ventilation. Neth J Crit Care 8:6–9Google Scholar
  47. Brunner JX, Iotti GA (2002) Adaptive support ventilation (ASV). Minerva Anestesiol 68(5):365–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Brunner JX, Laubscher TP, Banner MJ et al (1995) Simple method to measure total expiratory time constant based on the passive expiratory flow volume curve. Crit Care Med 23(6):1117–1122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Bunnell JB (2006) High-frequency ventilation: general concepts. In: Donn SM, Sinha SK (eds) Manual of neonatal respiratory care, 2nd edn. Mosby, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  50. Burchardi H (1996) New strategies in mechanical ventilation for acute lung injury. Eur Respir J 9(5):1063–1072PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Burke WC, Nahum A, Ravenscraft SA, Nakos G, Adams AB, Marcy TW, Marini JJ (1993) Modes of tracheal gas insufflation. Comparison of continuous and phase-specific gas injection in normal dogs. Am Rev Respir Dis 148:562–568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Burton AC, Patel DJ (1958) Effects on pulmonary vascular resistance of inflation of the rabbit lung. J Appl Physiol 12:239–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Calderini E, Confalonieri M, Puccio PG, Francavilla N, Stella L, Gregoretti C (1999) Patient-ventilator asynchrony during noninvasive ventilation: the role of expiratory trigger. Intensive Care Med 25:662–667PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Cane RD, Peruzzi WT, Shapiro BA (1991) Airway pressure release ventilation in severe acute respiratory failure. Chest 100:460–463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Cannon ML, Cornell J, Tripp-HameHamel DS et al (2000) Tidal volumes for ventilated infants should be determined with a pneumotachometer placed at the endotracheal tube. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 162:2109–2112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Carlo WA, Ambalavanan N, Chatburn RL (2006) Classification of mechanical ventilation devices. In: Donn SM, Sinha SK (eds) Manual of neonatal respiratory care. Mosby Elsevier, Philadelphia, pp 74–80Google Scholar
  57. Carney D, DiRocco J, Nieman G (2005) Dynamic alveolar mechanics and ventilator-induced lung injury. Crit Care Med 33:S122–S128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Chan V, Greenough A (1994) Comparison of weaning by patient triggered ventilation or synchronous intermittent ventilation. Acta Paediatr 83:335–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Chang HK (1984) Mechanisms of gas transport during ventilation by high-frequency oscillation. J Appl Physiol 56:553–563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Chapman FW, Newell JC, Roy RJ (1985) A feedback controller for ventilatory therapy. Ann Biomed Eng 13:359–372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Chatburn RL (1995) Calcification of mechanical ventilators. In: Branson RD, Hess DR, Chatrburn RL (eds) Respiratory care equipment. Lippincott, Philadelphia, pp 264–293Google Scholar
  62. Chatburn RL (2003) Fundamentals of mechanical ventilation. Mandu Press Ltd, Cleveland HeightsGoogle Scholar
  63. Chatburn RL, Primiano FP Jr (1998) Mathmatical models of respiratory mechanics. In: Chatburn RL, Craig KC (eds) Fundamentals of respiratory care research. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, pp 59–100Google Scholar
  64. Chatburn RL, Primiano FP Jr (2001) A new system for understanding modes of mechanical ventilation. Respir Care 46(6):604–621PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Cheema IU, Ahluwalia JS (2001) Feasibility of tidal volume-guided ventilation in newborn infants: a randomized crossover trial using the volume guarantee modality. Pediatrics 107:1323–1328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Chiumello D, Pelosi P, Carlesso E, Severgnini P, Aspesi M, Gamberoni C, Antonelli M, Conti G, Chiaranda M, Gattinoni L (2003) Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation delivered by helmet vs. standard face mask. Intensive Care Med 29:1671–1679PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Clark LC (1985) Introduction to fluorocarbons. Int Anesthesiol Clin 23:1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Clark LC, Gollan F (1966) Survival of mammals breathing organic liquids equilibrated with oxygen at atmospheric pressure. Science 152:1755–1756PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Codazzi D, Nacoti M, Passoni M, Bonanomi E, Sperti LR, Fumagalli R (2006) Continuous positive airway pressure with modified helmet for treatment of hypoxemic acute respiratory failure in infants and a preschool population: a feasibility study. Pediatr Crit Care Med 7:455–460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Coles JR, Brown WA, Lampard DG (1973) Computer control of respiration and anaesthesia. Med Biol Eng 11:262–267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Colombo D, Cammarota G, Bergamaschi V, De Lucia M, Corte FD, Navalesi P (2008) Physiologic response to varying levels of pressure support and neurally adjusted ventilatory assist in patients with acute respiratory failure. Intensive Care Med 34:2010–2018PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Coon RL, Zuperku EJ, Kampine JP (1978) Systemic arterial blood pH servocontrol of mechanical ventilation. Anesthesiology 49:201–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Corrado A, Gorini M (2006) Negative pressure ventilation. In: Tobin MJ (ed) Principles and practice of mechanical ventilation. McGraw Hill, New York, pp 403–419Google Scholar
  74. Corrado A et al (1996) Negative pressure ventilation in the treatment of acute respiratory failure: an old noninvasive technique reconsidered. Eur Respir J 9:1531–1544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Costa R, Navalesi P, Antonelli M, Cavaliere F, Craba A, Proietti R, Conti G (2005) Physiologic evaluation of different levels of assistance during noninvasive ventilation delivered through a helmet. Chest 128:2984–2990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Cournand A, Motley HL, Werko L, Richards DW (1948) Physiologic studies of the effect of intermittent positive pressure breathing on cardiac output in man. Am J Physiol 152:162–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Craft AP, Bhandari V, Finer NN (2003) The sy-fi study: a randomized prospective trial of synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation versus a high-frequency flow interrupter in infants less than 1000 g. J Perinatol 23:14–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Curtis SE, Fuhrman BP, Howland DF, DeFrancisis M, Motoyama EK (1991) Cardiac output during liquid (perfluorocarbon) breathing in newborn piglets. Crit Care Med 19:225–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Curtis SE, Peek JT, Kelly DR (1993) Partial liquid breathing with perflubron improves arterial oxygenation in acute canine lung injury. J Appl Physiol 75:2696–2702PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. D’Angelo E, Calderini E, Torri G et al (1989) Respiratory system mechanics in anesthetized-paralyzed humans: effects of flow and volume. J Appl Physiol 67:2556–2564PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. D’Angio CT, Chess PR, Kovacs SL et al (2005) Pressure-regulated volume control ventilation vs. synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation for very low-birth-weight infants: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 159:868–875PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Dassieu G, Brochard L et al (1998) Continuous tracheal gas insufflation enables a volume reduction strategy in hyaline membrane disease: technical aspects and clinical results. Intensive Care Med 24(10):1076–1082PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Davis GM, Coates AL, Papageorgiou A, Bureau MA (1988) Direct measurement of static chest wall compliance in animal and human neonates. J Appl Physiol 65:1093–1098PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Devlieger H, Daniels H, Marchal G, Moerman P, Casaer P, Eggermont E (1991) The diaphragm of the newborn infant: anatomical and ultrasonographic studies. J Dev Physiol 16:321–329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Dhand R (2005) Ventilator graphics and respiratory mechanics in the patient with obstructive lung disease. Respir Care 50:246–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Dimitriou G, Greenough A, Kavvadia V, Laubscher B, Milner AD (1998) Volume delivery during high frequency oscillation. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 78:F148–F150PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Dojat M, Brochard L, Lemaire F et al (1992) A knowledge-based system for assisted ventilation of patients in intensive care units. Int J Clin Monit Comput 9:239–250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Dongelmans DA, Veelo DP, Bindels A et al (2008) Determinant of tidal volumes with adaptive support ventilation : a multicenter observational study. Anesth Analg 107(3):932–937PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Dongelmans DA, Veelo DP, Paulus F et al (2009) Weaning automation with adaptive support ventilation: a randomized controlled trial in cardiothoracic surgery patients. Anesth Analg 108(2):565–571PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Donn SM (ed) (1997) Neonatal and paediatric pulmonary graphics: principles and clinical applications. Future Publishing, ArmonkGoogle Scholar
  91. Donn SM, Becker MA (2003) Special ventilator technique & modalities 1. Patient-triggered ventilation. In: Goldsmith JP, Karotkin EH (eds) Assisted ventilation of the neonate, 4th edn. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 203–218Google Scholar
  92. Donn SM, Blane CE (1985) Endotracheal tube movement in the preterm infant: oral versus nasal intubation. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 94:18–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Donn SM, Boon W (2009) Mechanical ventilation of the neonate: should we target volume or pressure? Respir Care 54:1236–1243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Donn SM, Kuhns LR (1980) Mechanism of endotracheal tube movement with change of head position in the neonate. Pediatr Radiol 9:37–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Donn SM, Sinha SK (1998) Controversies in patient- triggered ventilation. Clin Perinatol 25:49–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Donn SM, Sinha SK (2001) Newer modes of mechanical ventilation for neonates. Curr Opin Pediatr 13:99–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Donn SM, Sinha SK (2006) Minimising ventilator induced lung injury in preterm infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 91:F226–F230PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Donn SM, Nicks JJ, Becker MA (1994) Synchronized ventilation of preterm with respiratory distress syndrome. J Perinatol 14:90–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Donn SM, Greenough A, Sinha SK (2000) Patient triggered ventilation. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 83:F224–F226PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. Downs JB, Stock MC (1987) Airway pressure release ventilation: a new concept in ventilatory support. Crit Care Med 15:459–461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Dreyfuss D, Saumon G (1998) Ventilator-induced lung injury: lessons from experimental studies. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 157:294–323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Easa D, Mundie GT, Finn KC, Hashiro G, Balaraman V (1994) Continuous extrathoracic pressure versus positive end expiratory pressure in piglets after saline lung lavage. Pediatr Pulmunol 17:161–168Google Scholar
  103. East TD, Westenskow DR, Pace NL, Nelson LD (1982) A microcomputer based differential lung ventilation system. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 29:736–740PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. East TD, Andriano KP, Pace NL (1986) Computer-controlled optimization of positive end-expiratory pressure. Crit Care Med 14:792–797PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. East TD, Tolle BS, McJames BS et al (1991) A non-linear closed-loop controller for oxygenation based on a clinically proven fifth dimensional quality surface. Anesthesiology 75(3A):A468Google Scholar
  106. Emeriaud G, Beck J, Tucci M, Lacroix J, Sinderby C (2006) Diaphragm electrical activity during expiration in mechanically ventilated infants. Pediatr Res 59:705–710PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Ershowsky P, Krieger B (1987) Changes in breathing pattern during pressure support ventilation. Respir Care 32:1011–1016Google Scholar
  108. Essouri S, Nicot F, Clement A, Garabedian EN, Roger G, Lofaso F, Fauroux B (2005) Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in infants with upper airway obstruction: comparison of continuous and bilevel positive pressure. Intensive Care Med 31:574–580PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Esteban A, Alia I, Gordo F, Fernandez R, Solsona JF, Vallverdu I, Macias S, Alleque JM, Blanco J, Carriedo D, Leon M, de la Cal MA, Taboada F, GonzalezdeValasco J, Palazon E, Carrizosa F, Tomas R, Suarez J, Goldwasser RS (1997) Extubation outcome after spontaneous breathing trials with T-tube or pressure support ventilation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 156:459–465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Fagon Y, Hance J, Chastre J et al (1993) Nosocomial pneumonia in ventilated patients: a cohort study evaluating attributable mortality and hospital stay. Am J Med 94:281–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Farias J-A, Retta A, Alia I, Olazarri F, Esteban A, Golubicki A, Allende D, Maliarchuk O, Peltzer C, Ratto ME, Zalazar R, Garea M, Moreno EG (2001) A comparison of two methods to perform a breathing trial before extubation in pediatric intensive care patients. Intensive Care Med 27:1649–1654PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Ferguson SD (2006) Sechrist model IV – 200 SAVI ventilators. In: Donn SM Sinha SK (ed) Manual of neonatal respiratory care, 2nd edn. Elsevier, Philadelphia, pp 269–272Google Scholar
  113. Fredberg JJ, Glass GM, Boynton BR, Frantz ID 3rd (1987) Factors influencing mechanical performance of neonatal high-frequency ventilators. J Appl Physiol 62:2485–2490PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Froese AB, Bryan AC (1974) Effects of anesthesia and paralysis on diaphragmatic mechanics in man. Anesthesiology. 41(3):242–55Google Scholar
  115. Froese AB (1997) High-frequency oscillatory ventilation for adult respiratory distress syndrome: let’s get it right this time! Crit Care Med 25:906–908PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Frumin JM (1957) Clinical use of a physiological respirator producing N2O amnesia-analgesia. Anesthesiology 18:290–299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Garner W, Downs JB, Stock MC, Rasanen J (1988) Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV): a human trial. Chest 94:779–781PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Gattioni L, Presenti A, Torresin A et al (1986) Adult respiratory distress syndrome profiles by computed tomography. J Thorac Imaging 1:25–30Google Scholar
  119. Gerstmann DR, Fouke JM, Winter DC, Taylor AF, deLemos RA (1990) Proximal, tracheal, and alveolar pressures during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in a normal rabbit model. Pediatr Res 28:367–373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Gorini M, Villella G, Ginanni R et al (2002) Effect of a assist negative pressure ventilation by microprocessor-based iron lung on breathing effort. Thorax 57:258–262PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Grasso S, Terragni P, Mascia L et al (2004) Airway pressure–time curve profile (stress index) detects tidal recruitment/hyperinflation in experimental acute lung injury. Crit Care Med 32:1018–1027PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Grasso F et al (2008) Negative pressure ventilation, better oxygenation and less lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 177:412–418PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Greenough A, Morley CJ (1984) Pneumothorax in infants who fight ventilator. Lancet 1:689PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Greenough A, Pool J (1988) Neonatal patient triggered ventilation. Arch Dis Child 63:394–397PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Greenough A, Dimitriou G, Pendergast M et al (2008) Synchronized mechanical ventilation for respiratory support in newborn infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (1), CD000456Google Scholar
  126. Greenspan JS, Wolfson MR, Rubenstein SD, Shaffer TH (1989) Liquid ventilation of preterm baby. Lancet 2:1095PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Gregoretti C, Confalonieri M, Navalesi P, Squadrone V, Frigerio P, Beltrame F, Carbone G, Conti G, Gamna F, Nava S, Calderini E, Skrobik Y, Antonelli M (2002) Evaluation of patient skin breakdown and comfort with a new face mask for non-invasive ventilation: a multi-center study. Intensive Care Med 28:278–284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Gruber PC, Gomersall CD, Leung P et al (2008) Randomized controlled trial comparing adaptive-support ventilation with pressure-regulated volume-controlled ventilation with automode in weaning patients after cardiac surgery. Anesthesiology 109(1):81–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Guilleminault C, Pelayo R, Clerk A, Leger D, Bocian RC (1995) Home nasal continuous positive airway pressure in infants with sleep-disordered breathing. J Pediatr 127:905–912PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Gupta S, Sinha SK, Donn SM (2009) The effect of two levels of pressure support ventilation on tidal volume delivery and minute ventilation in preterm infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 94:F80–F83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Habib RH, Pyon KH, Courtney SE (2002) Optimal high-frequency oscillatory ventilation settings by nonlinear lung mechanics analysis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 166:950–953PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Harris TR, Bunnell J (1993) High-frequency jet ventilation in clinical neonatology. In: Pomerance JJ, Richardson CJ (eds) Neonatology for the clinician. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, pp 311–324Google Scholar
  133. Hatcher D, Watanabe H, Ashbury T, Vincent S, Fisher J, Froese A (1998) Mechanical performance of clinically available, neonatal, high-frequency, oscillatory-type ventilators. Crit Care Med 26:1081–1088PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Helm E et al (2009) Use of dynamic Ct scan in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with comparison of positive and negative ventilation. Eur Radiol 19:50–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Henderson Y, Chillingworth FD, Whitney JL (1915) The respiratory dead space. Am J Physiol 38:1–19Google Scholar
  136. Henzler D, Dembrinski R, Bensberg R et al (2004) Ventilation with biphasic positive airway pressure in experimental lung injury: influence of transpulmonary pressure on as exchange and hemodynamics. Intensive Care Med 30:935–943PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Herber-Jonat S, Rieger-Fackeldey E, Hummler H, Schulze A (2006) Adaptive mechanical backup ventilation for preterm infants on respiratory assist modes – a pilot study. Intensive Care Med 32:302–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Herrera CM, Gerhardt T, Claure N et al (2002) Effects of volume-guaranteed synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation in preterm infants recovering from respiratory failure. Pediatrics 110:529–533PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Hershenson MB, Colin AA, Wohl ME, Stark AR (1990) Changes in the contribution of the rib cage to tidal breathing during infancy. Am Rev Respir Dis 141:922–925PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Heulitt MJ, Desmond B (1998) Lung protective strategies in pediatric patients with ARDS. Respir Care 43(11):952–960Google Scholar
  141. Heulitt MJ, Anders M, Benham D (1995) Acute respiratory distress syndrome in pediatric patients: redirecting therapy to reduce iatrogenic lung injury. Respir Care 40:74–85Google Scholar
  142. Heulitt MJ, Clement KC, Holt SJ, Thurman TL, Jo CH (2012) Neurally triggered breaths have reduced response time, work of breathing, and asynchrony compared with pneumatically triggered breaths in a recovering animal model of lung injury. Pediatr Crit Care Med 13(3):e195–e203, Online publication only. E-PAS2008: [2125.7]PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Hill NS (1986) Clinical application of body ventilators. Chest 90:897–905PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Hird MF, Greenough A (1990) Causes of failure of neonatal patient triggered ventilation. Early Hum Dev 23:101–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Hird MF, Greenough A (1991a) Comparison of triggering systems for neonatal patients. Arch Dis Child 66:426–428PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Hird MF, Greenough A (1991b) Patient triggered ventilation using a flow triggered system. Arch Dis Child 66:1140–1142PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Honey G, Bleak T, Karp T, MacRitchie A, Null D Jr (2007) Use of the Duotron transporter high frequency ventilator during neonatal transport. Neonatal Netw 26:167–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Hummler HD, Gerhardt T, Gonzales A et al (1996) Patient- triggered ventilation in neonates: comparison of a flow and impedance- triggered systems. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 154:1049–1054PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Hurewitz AN, Bergofsky EH, Vomero E (1991) Airway insufflation: increasing flow rates progressively reduce dead space in respiratory failure. Am Rev Respir Dis 144:1229–1233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Hurst J, Branson R, Davis K, Barrette R (1989) Cardiopulmonary effects of pressure support ventilation. Arch Surg 124:1067–1070PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Imanaka H, Nishimura M, Takeuchi M, Kimball WR, Yahagi N, Kumon K (2000) Autotriggering caused by cardiogenic oscillation during flow-triggered mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med 28:402–407PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Iotta GA, Brochard L, Lemaire F (1991) Mechanical ventilation and weaning. In: Zapol W, Tinker J (eds) Care of the critically ill patient. Springer, London, pp 457–478Google Scholar
  153. Iotti GA, Braschi A, Brunner JX et al (1995a) Non-invasive evaluation of instantaneous total mechanical activity of the respiratory muscles during pressure support ventilation. Chest 108:208–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Iotti GA, Braschi A, Brunner JX et al (1995b) Respiratory mechanics by least square fitting in mechanically ventilated patients: applications during paralysis and during pressure support ventilation. Intensive Care Med 21:406–413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Iotti G, Brunner JX, Braschi A, Laubscher TP et al (1996) Closed-Loop control of airway occlusion pressure at 0.1 s (P0.1) applied to pressure-support ventilation: algorithm and application in intubated patients. Crit Care Med 24:771–779PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Iotti G, Belliato M, Polito A et al (2005) Safety and effectiveness of adaptive support ventilation (ASV) in acute respiratory failure. Intensive Care Med 31:S168Google Scholar
  157. Jaber S, Chanques G, Matecki S, Ramonatxo M, Souche B, Perrigault PF, Eledjam JJ (2002) Comparison of the effects of heat and moisture exchangers and heated humidifiers on ventilation and gas exchange during non-invasive ventilation. Intensive Care Med 28:1590–1594PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Jaber S, Sebbane M, Verzilli D et al (2009) Adaptive support and pressure support ventilation behavior in response to increased ventilatory demand. Anesthesiology 110(3):620–627PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Jonson B, Similowski T, Levy P, Viires N, Pariente R (1990) Expiratory flushing of airways a method to reduce deadspace ventilation. Eur Respir J 3:1202–1205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Jouvet P, Hubert P, Isabey D, Pinquier D, Dahan E, Cloup M, Harf A (1997) Assessment of high-frequency neonatal ventilator performances. Intensive Care Med 23:208–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Jubran A, Van de Graff WB, Tobin MJ (1995) Variability of patient-ventilator interaction with pressure support ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 152:129–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Kacmarek RM, Chipman D (2006) Basic principles of ventilator machinery. In: Tobin MJ (ed) Principles and practice of mechanical ventilation. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 72–75Google Scholar
  163. Keszler M, Abubakar K (2004) Volume guarantee: stability of tidal volume and incidence of hypocarbia. Pediatr Pulmonol 38:240–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Keszler M, Durand D (2001) High-frequency ventilation. In: Donn SM, Wiswell T (eds) Clinics in perinatology: advances in mechanical ventilation and surfactant therapy. W.B. Saunders & Co, Philadelphia, pp 579–607Google Scholar
  165. Keszler M, Donn SM, Bucciarelli RL, Alverson DC, Hart M, Lunyong V, Modanlou HD, Noguchi A, Pearlman SA, Puri A et al (1991) Multicenter controlled trial comparing high-frequency jet ventilation and conventional mechanical ventilation in newborn infants with pulmonary interstitial emphysema. J Pediatr 119:85–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Keszler M, Modanlou HD, Brudno DS et al (1997) Multi‑center controlled clinical trial of high‑frequency jet ventilation in preterm infants with uncomplicated respiratory distress syndrome. Pediatrics 100:593–599PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Khan Y, Heckmatt JZ, Dubowitz V (1996) Sleep studies and supportive ventilatory treatment in patients with congenital muscle disorders. Arch Dis Child 74:195–200PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Khoo MC, Slutsky AS, Drazen JM, Solway J, Gavriely N, Kamm RD (1984) Gas mixing during high-frequency ventilation: an improved model. J Appl Physiol 57:493–506PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Klain M, Smith RB (1977) High frequency percutaneous transtracheal jet ventilation. Crit Care Med 5:280–287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Kleinman BS, Frey K, VanDrunen M et al (2002) Motion of the diaphragm in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease while spontaneously breathing versus during pressure breathing after anesthesia and neuromuscular blockade. Anesthesiology 97:298–305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Kornecki A, Kavanagh BP (2007) Mechanical ventilation. In: Wheeler DS, Wong HR, Shanley TP (eds) Pediatric critical care medicine basic science and clinical evidence. Springer, London, pp 412–425Google Scholar
  172. Krumpe P (1981) Continuous negative external chest pressure decreases transvascular water transport in sheep after pseudomonas bacteriemia. J Clin Invest 67:264–273PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Krumpe PE, Zidulka A, Urbanetti J, Anthonisen NR (1977) Comparison of the effect of continuous negative external chest pressure and positive end expiratory pressure on cardiac index in dogs. Am Rev Respir Dis 115:39–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Kudoh I, Andoh T, Doi H, Kaneko K, Okomura F (1992) Continuous negative extrathoracic pressure ventilation, lung water volume, and central blood volume. Chest 101:530–533PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Kylstra JA (1970) Required properties of a liquid for respiration. Fed Proc 29:1724PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Kylstra JA (1974) Liquid breathing. Undersea Biomed Res 1:259–269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Kylstra JA, Paganelli CV, Lanphier EH (1966) Pulmonary gas exchange in dogs ventilated with hyperbarically oxygenated liquid. J Appl Physiol 21:177–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Laubscher TP, Heinrichs W, Weiler N et al (1994a) An adaptive lung ventilation controller. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 41:51–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Laubscher TP, Frutiger A, Fanconi S et al (1994b) Automatic selection of tidal volume, respiratory frequency, and minute ventilation in intubated ICU patients as start up procedure for closed loop controlled ventilation. Int J Clin Monit Comput 11(1):19–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Laureen H, Ronald GP (2000) Flow- triggering, pressure triggering and auto triggering during mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med 28:579–581Google Scholar
  181. Lawson RW, Vines DL, Shelledy DC et al (2001) The response of adaptive support ventilation (ASV) to varying spontaneous minute ventilation at different compliance and resistance in a lung model. Respir Care 01:210Google Scholar
  182. Leach CL, Greenspan JS, Rubenstein SD et al (1996) Partial liquid ventilation with perflubron in premature infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome. The LiquiVent Study Group. N Engl J Med 335:761–767PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Lecomte F, Brander L, Jalde F, Beck J, Qui H, Elie C, Slutsky AS, Brunet F, Sinderby C (2009) Physiological response to increasing levels of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (nava). Respir Physiol Neurobiol 166:117–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Leipala JA, Iwasaki S, Milner A, Greenough A (2004) Accuracy of the volume and pressure displays of high frequency oscillators. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 89:F174–F176PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Leung P, Jubran A, Tobin MJ (1997) Comparison of assisted ventilator modes on triggering, patient effort, and dyspnea. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 155:1940–1948PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Levine S, Nguyen T, Taylor N, Friscia ME, Budak MT, Rothenberg P, Zhu J, Sachdeva R, Sonnad S, Kaiser LR et al (2008) Rapid disuse atrophy of diaphragm fibers in mechanically ventilated humans. N Engl J Med 358:1327–1335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. L’Her E, Deye N, Lellouche F, Taille S, Demoule A, Fraticelli A, Mancebo J, Brochard L (2005) Physiologic effects of noninvasive ventilation during acute lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 172:1112–1118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Li KK, Riley RW, Guilleminault C (2000) An unreported risk in the use of home nasal continuous positive airway pressure and home nasal ventilation in children: mid-face hypoplasia. Chest 117:916–918PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Lista G, Colnaghi M, Castoldi F et al (2004) Impact of targeted-volume ventilation on lung inflammatory response in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Pediatr Pulmonol 37:510–514PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Lockhat D, Langleben A, Zidulka D (1992) Haemodynamic differences between continual positive and two types of negative pressure ventilation. Am Rev Respir Dis 146:677–680PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Lofaso F, Isabey D, Lorino H, Harf A, Scheid P (1992) Respiratory response to positive and negative inspriatory pressure in humans. Respir Physiol 89:75–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Long SE, Menon AS, Kato H, Goldstein RS, Slutsky AS (1988) Constant oxygen insufflation (COI) in a ventilatory failure model. Am Rev Respir Dis 138:630–635PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Lourens MS, van den Berg B, Aerts JGJV et al (2000) Expiratory time constants in mechanically ventilated patients with and without COPD. Intensive Care Med 26:1612–1618PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Lowe CA, Shaffer TH (1981) Increased pulmonary vascular resistance during liquid ventilation. Undersea Biomed Res 8:229–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Lowe CA, Shaffer TH (1986) Pulmonary vascular resistance in the fluorocarbon-filled lung. J Appl Physiol 60:154–159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Lowe C, Tuma RF, Sivieri EM, Shaffer TH (1979) Liquid ventilation: cardiovascular adjustments with secondary hyperlactatemia and acidosis. J Appl Physiol 47:1051–1057PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Lynch PR, Wilson JS, Shaffer TH, Cohen N (1983) Decompression incidence in air- and liquid-breathing hamsters. Undersea Biomed Res 10:1–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. MacIntyre NR (1986) Respiratory function during pressure support ventilation. Chest 89:677–683PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. MacIntyre N (1987) Pressure support ventilation: effects on ventilatory reflexes and ventilatory muscle work load. Respir Care 32:447–457Google Scholar
  200. Mainali ES, Greene C, Rozycki HJ, Gutcher GR (2007) Safety and efficacy of high-frequency jet ventilation in neonatal transport. J Perinatol 27:609–613PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Marcus CL, Ward SL, Mallory GB, Rosen CL, Beckerman RC, Weese-Mayer DE, Brouillette RT, Trang HT, Brooks LJ (1995) Use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure as treatment of childhood obstructive sleep apnea. J Pediatr 127:88–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Marraro GA (2003) Innovative practices of ventilatory support with pediatric patients. Pediatr Crit Care Med 4:8–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Matic I, Majeric-Kogler V (2004) Comparison of pressure support and T-tube weaning from mechanical ventilation: randomized prospective study. Croat Med J 45:162–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Matthews WH, Balzer RH, Shelburne JD, Pratt PC, Kylstra JA (1978) Steady-state gas exchange in normothermic, anesthetized, liquid-ventilated dogs. Undersea Biomed Res 5:341–354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. McCallionN, Davis PG, Morley CJ (2005) Volume-targeted versus pressure-limited ventilation in the neonate. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3):D003666Google Scholar
  206. McDermott I, Bach JR, Parker C, Sortor S (1989) Custom-fabricated interfaces for intermittent positive pressure ventilation. Int J Prosthodont 2:224–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Mead J (1960) Control of respiratory frequency. J Appl Physiol 15:325–336Google Scholar
  208. MEAD J, WHITTENBERGER JL, RADFORD EP (1957) Surface tension as a factor in pulmonary volume-pressure hysteresis. J Appl Physiol 10:191–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Meduri GU, Cook TR, Turner RE, Cohen M, Leeper KV (1996a) Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in status asthmaticus. Chest 110:767–774PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Meduri GU, Turner RE, Abou-Shala N, Wunderink R, Tolley E (1996b) Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation via face mask. First-line intervention in patients with acute hypercapnic and hypoxemic respiratory failure. Chest 109:179–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Mehta S, Hill NS (2001) Noninvasive ventilation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 163:540–577PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Mehta S, McCool FD, Hill NS (2001) Leak compensation in positive pressure ventilators: a lung model study. Eur Respir J 17:259–267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Meredith KS, de Lemos RA et al (1988) Role of lung injury in the pathogenesis of hyaline membrane disease in premature baboons. J Appl Physiol 66:2150–2158Google Scholar
  214. Messier SE, Digeronimo RJ, Gillette RK (2009) Comparison of the Sensormedics 3100A and Bronchotron transporter in a neonatal piglet ARDS model. Pediatr Pulmonol 44:693–700PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Milic-Emili J, Polysongsang Y (1986) Respiratory mechanics in the adult respiratory distress system. Crit Care Clin 2:573–584PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Milic-Emili J, Gottfried SB, Rossi A (1987) Noninvasive measurement of respiratory mechanics in ICU patients. Int J Clin Monit Comput 4:11–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Miller TL, Blackson TJ, Shaffer TH, Touch SM (2004) Tracheal gas insufflation-augmented continuous positive airway pressure in a spontaneously breathing model of neonatal respiratory distress. Pediatr Pulmonol 38(5):386–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Minuto A, Giacomini M, Giamundo B, Tartufari A, Denkewitz T, Marzorati S, Palandi A, Stabile L, Iapichino G (2003) Non-invasive mechanical ventilation in patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Minerva Anestesiol 69:835–840PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Mitamura Y, Mikami T, Sugawara H et al (1971) An optimally controlled respirator. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 18:330–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Mitamura Y, Mikami T, Yamamoto K (1975) A dual control system for assisting respiration. Med Biol Eng 13:846–853PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Moerer O, Beck J, Brander L, Costa R, Quintel M, Slutsky AS, Brunet F, Sinderby C (2008) Subject-ventilator synchrony during neural versus pneumatically triggered non-invasive helmet ventilation. Intensive Care Med 34:1615–1623PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Moore RE, Clark LC (1985) Chemistry of fluorocarbons in biomedical use. Int Anesthesiol Clin 23:11–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Muller E, Kolobow T, Mandava S, Jones M, Vitale G, Aprigliano M, Yanada K (1993) How to ventilate lungs as small as 12,5% of normal: the new technique of intratracheal pulmonary ventilation. Pediatr Res 34:606–610PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Mundie TG, Kuuleialoha F, Venkataraman B, Sneha S, Easa D (1995) Continuous negative extrathoracic pressure and positive and expiratory pressure. A comparative study in Escherichia coli endotoxin-treated neonatal piglets. Chest 107:249–255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Musante G, Schulze A, Gerhardt T, Everett R, Claure N, Schaller P, Bancalari E (2001) Respiratory mechanical unloading decreases thoraco-abdominal asynchrony and chest wall distortion in preterm infants. Pediatr Res 49:175–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Nahum A, Burke WC, Ravenscraft SA, Marcy TW, Adams AB, Crooke PS, Marini JJ (1992a) Lung mechanics and gas exchange during pressure-control ventilation in dogs. Augmentation of CO2 elimination by an intratracheal catheter. Am Rev Respir Dis 146:965–973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Nahum A, Ravenscraft SA, Nakos G, Burke WC, Adams AB, Marcy TW, Marini JJ (1992b) Tracheal gas insufflation during pressure-control ventilation. Effect of catheter position, diameter, and flow rate. Am Rev Respir Dis 146:1411–1418PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Nahum A, Ravenscraft SA, Nakos G, Adams AB, Burke WC, Marini JJ (1993) Effect of catheter flow direction on CO2 removal during tracheal gas insufflation in dogs. J Appl Physiol 75:1238–1246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Nakhajavan FK, Palmer WH, McGregor M (1966) Influence of respiration on venous return in pulmonary emphysema. Circulation 32:8–17Google Scholar
  230. Nakos G, Zakinthinos S, Kotanidou A, Tsagaris H, Roussos C (1994) Tracheal gas insufflation reduces the tidal volume while PaCO2 is maintained constant. Intensive Care Med 20:407–413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Nava S, Navalesi P, Gregoretti C (2009) Interfaces and humidification for noninvasive mechanical ventilation. Respir Care 54:71–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Nicks JJ, Becker MA, Donn SM (1994) Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: response to pressure support ventilation. J Perinatol 14:495–497PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Nilsestuen JO, Hargett KD (2005) Using ventilator graphics to identify patient-ventilator asynchrony. Respir Care 50:202–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Oca MJ, Becker MA, Dechert RE, Donn SM (2002) Relationship of neonatal endotracheal tube size and airway resistance. Respir Care 47:994–997PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Ohlson KB, Westenskow DR, Jordan WS (1982) A microprocessor based feedback controller for mechanical ventilation. Ann Biomed Eng 10:35–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Openshaw P, Edwards S, Helms P (1984) Changes in rib cage geometry during childhood. Thorax 39:624–627PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Ophoven JP, Mammel MC, Gordon MJ, Boros SJ (1984) Tracheobronchial histopathology associated with high-frequency jet ventilation. Crit Care Med 12:829–832PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Osorio W, Claure N, D’Ugard C et al (2005) Effects of pressure support during an acute reduction of synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation in preterm infants. J Perinatol 25:412–416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Otis AB, Fenn WO, Rahn H (1950) Mechanics of breathing in man. J Appl Physiol 2:592–607PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Papastamelos C, Panitch HB, England SE, Allen JL (1995) Developmental changes in chest wall compliance in infancy and early childhood. J Appl Physiol 78:179–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Parret L, Stucki P, Scalfaro P et al (2000) Adaptive support ventilation (ASV) can prevent ventilator-induced lung injury in children. Pediatr Crit Care Med 1:1–41Google Scholar
  242. Patroniti N, Foti G, Manfio A, Coppo A, Bellani G, Pesenti A (2003) Head helmet versus face mask for non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure: a physiological study. Intensive Care Med 29:1680–1687PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Perlman JM, Goodman K, Kreusser KL et al (1985) Reduction in intraventricular hemorrhage by elimination of fluctuating cerebral blood-flow velocity in pre-term infants with respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 312:1353–1357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Petrucci N, Iacovelli W (2007) Lung protective ventilation strategy for the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3):CD003844Google Scholar
  245. Petter AH, Chiolero RL, Cassina T et al (2003) Automatic “respirator weaning” with adaptive support ventilation: the effect on duration of endotracheal intubation and patient management. Anesth Analg 97:1743–1750PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Piastra M, Antonelli M, Chiaretti A, Polidori G, Polidori L, Conti G (2004) Treatment of acute respiratory failure by helmet-delivered non-invasive pressure support ventilation in children with acute leukemia: a pilot study. Intensive Care Med 30:472–476PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Pillow JJ (2005) High-frequency oscillatory ventilation: mechanisms of gas exchange and lung mechanics. Crit Care Med 33:S135–S141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Pillow JJ, Neil H, Wilkinson MH, Ramsden CA (1999) Effect of I/E ratio on mean alveolar pressure during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. J Appl Physiol 87:407–414PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Pillow JJ, Wilkinson MH, Neil HL, Ramsden CA (2001) In vitro performance characteristics of high-frequency oscillatory ventilators. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 164:1019–1024PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Pillow JJ, Sly PD, Hantos Z, Bates JH (2002) Dependence of intrapulmonary pressure amplitudes on respiratory mechanics during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in preterm lambs. Pediatr Res 52:538–544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Pillow JJ, Sly PD, Hantos Z (2004) Monitoring of lung volume recruitment and derecruitment using oscillatory mechanics during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in the preterm lamb. Pediatr Crit Care Med 5:172–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Piowtrowski A, Sobala W, Kawczynski P (1997) Patient-initiated, pressure-regulated, volume-controlled ventilation compared with intermittent mandatory ventilation in neonates: a prospective, randomized study. Intensive Care Med 23:975–981Google Scholar
  253. Pokora T, Bing D, Mammel M, Boros S (1983) Neonatal high-frequency jet ventilation. Pediatrics 72:27–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Polin RA, Fox WW, Abman SH (2004) Liquid Ventilation, Fetal and Neonatal Physiology, 3rd edn. Elsevier/Saunders, Philadelphia, p 989Google Scholar
  255. Poon CS, Huang KA (1987) An assist device for selective reduction of the work of breathing. Biomed Sci Instrum 23:161–167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Prinainak G, Kondali E, Georgopoulos D (2003) Effects of the flow wave form method of triggering and cycling on patient – ventilator interaction during pressure support. Intensive Care Med 29:1950–1959Google Scholar
  257. Putensen C, Rasanen J, Lopez FA (1994a) Effects of interfacing between spontaneous breathing and mechanical cycles on ventilation-perfusion distribution in canine lung injury. Anesthesiology 1994(81):921–930Google Scholar
  258. Putensen C, Rasanen J, Lopez FA (1994b) Ventilaiton perfusion distribution during mechanical ventilation with superimposed spontaneous breathing in canine lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 150:101–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Putensen C, Mutz NJ, Putensen-Himmer G, Zinserling J (1999) Spontaneous breathing during ventilatory support improves ventilation-perfusion distributions in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 159:1241–1248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Putensen C, Muders T, Varelmann D, Wrigge H (2006) The impact of spontaneous breathing during mechanical ventilation. Curr Opin Crit Care 12:13–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Racca F, Appendini L, Gregoretti C, Stra E, Patessio A, Donner CF, Ranieri VM (2005) Effectiveness of mask and helmet interfaces to deliver noninvasive ventilation in a human model of resistive breathing. J Appl Physiol 99:1262–1271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Ranieri VM, Guiliani R, Fiore T et al (1994) Volume-pressure curve of the respiratory system predicts effects of PEEP in ARDS :”occlusion” versus “constant flow” technique. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 149:19–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Ranieri VM, Zhang H, Mascia L et al (2000) Pressure–time curve predicts minimally injurious ventilatory strategy in an isolated rat lung model. Anesthesiology 93:1320–1328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Rasanen J (1994) Airway pressure release ventilation. In: Tobin MJ (ed) Principles and practice of mechanical ventilation. Mc-Graw-Hill, Inc, New York, pp 341–348Google Scholar
  265. Rasanen J, Downs JB, Stock MC (1987) Cardiovascular effects of conventional positive pressure ventilation and airway pressure release ventilation. Chest 92:390Google Scholar
  266. Raszynski A, Hultquist A, Latif H, Sussmane J, Soler M, Alam A, Brao J, Amor J, Kicheeney B, Kolobow T, Wolsfsdorf J (1993) Rescue from pediatric ECMO with prolonged hybrid intratracheal pulmonary ventilation. A technique for reducing deadspace ventilation and preventing induced lung injury. ASAIO J 39:681–685Google Scholar
  267. Ravenscraft SA, Burke WC, Nahum A, Adams AB, Nakos G, Marcy TW, Marini JJ (1993) Tracheal gas insufflation augments CO2 clearance during mechanical ventilation. Am Rev Respir Dis 148:345–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Reardon CC, Christiansen D, Barnett ED, Cabral HJ (2005) Intrapulmonary percussive ventilation vs incentive spirometry for children with neuromuscular disease. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 159:526–531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Reyes ZC, Claure N, Tauscher MK et al (2006) Randomized, controlled trial comparing synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation plus pressure support in preterm infants. Pediatrics 118:1409–1417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Richard JC, Carlucci A, Breton L, Langlais N, Jaber S, Maggiore S, Fougere S, Harf A, Brochard L (2002) Bench testing of pressure support ventilation with three different generations of ventilators. Intensive Care Med 28:1049–1057PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Rodarte JR, Rehder K (1986) Dynamic of respiration. In: Macklem PT, Mead J (eds) Handbook of physiology section 3: the respiratory system, Mechanics of breathing. American Physiologic Society, Baltimore, pp 131–144Google Scholar
  272. Rodeberg DA, Housinger TA, Greenhalgh DG, Maschinot NE, Warden GD (1994) Improved ventilatory function in burn patients using volumetric diffusive respiration. J Am Coll Surg 179:518–522PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Rossi A, Gottfried SB, Higgs BD et al (1985a) Respiratory mechanics in mechanically ventilated patients. J Appl Physiol 58:1849–1858PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Rossi A, Gottfried SB, Zochi L et al (1985b) Measurement of static compliance of the total respiratory system in patients with acute respiratory failure during mechanical ventilation. Am Rev Respir Dis 131:672–677PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Rudowski R, Bokliden A, Carstensen A et al (1991) Multivariable optimization of mechanical ventilation. A linear programming approach. Int J Clin Monit Comput 8:107–115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Sanders RD (1967) Two ventilating attachments for bronchoscopes. Del Med J 39:170Google Scholar
  277. Sanyal SK, Mitchell C, Huges WT, Cacaces J (1975) Continuous negative chest wall pressure as therapy for severe respiratory distress in older children. Chest 68:143–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. Sanyal SK, Avery T, Mohinder K, Hughes W, Harris K (1977a) Continuous negative chest wall pressure therapy for assisting ventilation in older children with progressive respiratory insufficiency. Acta Paediatr Scand 66:451–456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. Sanyal SK, Avery TL, Huges WT, Harris KS (1977b) Management of severe respiratory insufficiency due to pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis in immunosuppressed hosts. Am Rev Respir Dis 116:223–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. Sargent JW, Seffl RJ (1970) Properties of perfluorinated liquids. Fed Proc 29:1699–1703PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Sarkar S, Donn SM (2007) In support of pressure support. Clin Perinatol 34:117–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. Sassoon CSH, Light RW, Lodia R, Sieck GC, Mahutte CK (1991) Pressure–time product during continuous positive airway pressure, pressure support ventilation and T-piece during weaning from mechanical ventilation. Am Rev Respir Dis 143:459–479Google Scholar
  283. Sassoon CSH, Lodia R, Rheeman CH, Kuei JH, Light RW, Mahutte CK (1992) Inspiratory muscle work of breathing during flow-by, demand-flow, and continuous-flow systems in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am Rev Respir 145:1219–1222Google Scholar
  284. Sassoon CS, Zhu E, Caiozzo VJ (2004) Assist-control mechanical ventilation attenuates ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 170:626–632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. Saxton GA, Myers GH (1953) An electro-mechanical substitute for the human respiratory center. Clin Res Proc 1:116–117Google Scholar
  286. Schaller P, Schulze A (1991) A ventilator generating a positive or negative internal compliance. Ups J Med Sci 96:219–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. Schettino GP, Tucci MR, Sousa R, Valente Barbas CS, Passos Amato MB, Carvalho CR (2001) Mask mechanics and leak dynamics during noninvasive pressure support ventilation: a bench study. Intensive Care Med 27:1887–1891PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. Schmidt M, Demoule A, Mirkovic T, Duguet A, Bautin N, Straus C, Gottfried S, Similowski T (2008) Effet du neuro-asservissement de la ventilation assistée (nava) sur la variabilité et le chaos ventilatoire. Rev Mal Respir 25:1199, abstractGoogle Scholar
  289. Schonhofer B, Sortor-Leger S (2002) Equipment needs for noninvasive mechanical ventilation. Eur Respir J 20:1029–1036PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. Schulz V, Ulmer HV, Erdmann W et al (1974) A system of continuously patient CO2 -controlled ventilation. Pneumonologie 150:319–325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. Schulze A (2006) Respiratory gas conditioning and humidification. In: Donn SM, Sinha SK (eds) Manual of neonatal respiratory care, 2nd edn. Mosby, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  292. Schulze A, Bancalari E (2001) Proportional assist ventilation in infants. Clin Perinatol 28:561–578PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. Schulze A, Schaller P (1997) Assisted mechanical ventilation using resistive and elastic unloading. Semin Neonatol 2:105–114Google Scholar
  294. Schulze A, Schaller P, Gehrhardt B, Mädler HJ, Gmyrek D (1990) An infant ventilator technique for resistive unloading during spontaneous breathing. Results in a rabbit model of airway obstruction. Pediatr Res 28:79–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. Schulze A, Schaller P, Dinger J, Winkler U, Gmyrek D (1991) High frequency oscillatory ventilation near resonant frequency of the respiratory system in rabbits with normal and surfactant depleted lungs. Eur J Pediatr 150:671–675PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. Schulze A, Schaller P, Jonzon A, Sedin G (1993a) Assisted mechanical ventilation using elastic unloading: a study in cats with normal and injured lungs. Pediatr Res 34:600–605PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. Schulze A, Schaller P, Töpfer A, Kirpalani H (1993b) Resistive and elastic unloading to assist spontaneous breathing does not change functional residual capacity. Pediatr Pulmonol 16:170–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. Schulze A, Rich W, Schellenberg L, Schaller P, Heldt GP (1998a) Effects of different gain settings during assisted mechanical ventilation using respiratory unloading in rabbits. Pediatr Res 44:132–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. Schulze A, Suguihara C, Gerhardt T, Schaller P, Claure N, Everett R, Bancalari E (1998b) Effects of respiratory mechanical unloading on thoracoabdominal motion in meconium-injured piglets and rabbits. Pediatr Res 43:191–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. Schulze A, Gerhardt T, Musante G, Schaller P, Claure N, Everett R, Gomez-Marin O, Bancalari E (1999a) Proportional assist ventilation in low birth weight infants with acute respiratory disease. A comparison to assist/control and conventional mechanical ventilation. J Pediatr 135:339–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. Schulze A, Jonzon A, Sindelar R, Schaller P, Dammann V, Sedin G (1999b) Assisted mechanical ventilation using combined elastic and resistive unloading in cats with severe respiratory failure: effects on gas exchange and phrenic nerve activity. Acta Paediatr 88:636–641PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. Schulze A, Rieger-Fackeldey E, Gerhardt T, Claure N, Everett R, Bancalari E (2007) Randomized crossover comparison of proportional assist ventilation and patient-triggered ventilation in extremely low birth weight infants with evolving chronic lung disease. Neonatology 92:1–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. Servant GM, Nicks JJ, Donn SM et al (1992) Feasibility of applying flow-synchronized ventilation to very low birth weight infants. Respir Care 37:249–253Google Scholar
  304. Shaffer TH (1987) A brief review: liquid ventilation. Undersea Biomed Res 14:169–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. Shaffer W (2004) Liquid ventilation. In: Fetal and neonatal physiology. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 985–1001Google Scholar
  306. Shaffer TH, Rubenstein D, Moskowitz D, Delivoria-Papadopoulos M (1976) Gaseous exchange and acid–base balance in premature lambs during liquid ventilation since birth. Pediatr Res 10:227–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. Shaffer TH, Douglas PR, Lowe CA, Bhutani VK (1983) The effects of liquid ventilation on cardiopulmonary function in preterm lambs. Pediatr Res 17:303–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. Shaffer TH, Lowe CA, Bhutani VK, Douglas PR (1984) Liquid ventilation: effects on pulmonary function in distressed meconium-stained lambs. Pediatr Res 18:47–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. Shneerson JM (1991) Non invasive and domiciliary ventilation: negative pressure technique. Thorax 46:131–135PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. Sinderby C, Lindstrom L, Grassino AE (1995) Automatic assessment of electromyogram quality. J Appl Physiol 79:1803–1815PubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. Sinderby CA, Beck JC, Lindstrom LH, Grassino AE (1997) Enhancement of signal quality in esophageal recordings of diaphragm EMG. J Appl Physiol 82:1370–1377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. Sinderby C, Beck J, Spahija J, Weinberg J, Grassino A (1998) Voluntary activation of the human diaphragm in health and disease. J Appl Physiol 85:2146–2158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. Sinderby C, Navalesi P, Beck J, Skrobik Y, Comtois N, Friberg S, Gottfried SB, Lindstrom L (1999) Neural control of mechanical ventilation in respiratory failure. Nat Med 5:1433–1436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. Singh J, Sinha SK, Clarke P et al (2006) Mechanical ventilation of very low birth weight infants: is volume or pressure a better target variable? J Pediatr 149:308–313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  315. Singh J, Sinha S, Alsop E et al (2009) Long term follow-up of very low birth weight infants from a neonatal volume versus pressure mechanical ventilation trial. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 94:F360–F362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. Sinha SK, Donn SM (1996) Advances in neonatal conventional ventilation. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 75:F135–F140PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  317. Sinha SK, Donn SM (2001) Volume controlled ventilatory modes for the newborn: variations on a theme. Clin Perinatol 8:547–560Google Scholar
  318. Sinha SK, Donn SM (2002) Weaning newborns from mechanical ventilation. Semin Neonatol 7:421–428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  319. Sinha SK, Donn SM (2006a) Pressure support ventilation. In: Donn SM, Sinha SK (eds) Manual of neonatal respiratory care, 2nd edn. Mosby, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  320. Sinha SK, Donn SM (2006b) Difficult extubation in babies receiving assisted mechanical ventilation. Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed 91:ep42–ep46Google Scholar
  321. Sinha SK, Nicks JJ, Donn SM (1996) Graphic analysis of pulmonary mechanics in neonates receiving assisted ventilation. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 75:F213–F218PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  322. Sinha SK, Donn SM, Gavey J et al (1997) Randomised trial of volume controlled versus time cycled, pressure limited ventilation in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Arch Dis Child 77:F202–F205Google Scholar
  323. Sivieri EM, Moskowitz GD, Shaffer TH (1981) Instrumentation for measuring cardiac output by direct fick method during liquid ventilation. Undersea Biomed Res 8:75–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. Skaburskis M, Helal R, Zidulka A (1987) Haemodynamic effects of external continuous negative pressure ventilation compared with those of continuous positive pressure ventilation in dogs with acute lung injury. Am Rev Respir Dis 136:886–891PubMedGoogle Scholar
  325. Skaburskis M, Rivero D, Fitchett A, Zidulka A (1990) Haemodynamic effects of continuous negative chest pressure ventilation in heart failure. Am Rev Respir Dis 141:938–943PubMedGoogle Scholar
  326. Skabuskis M, Michel RP, Gatensy A, Zidulka A (1989) Effect of negative pressure ventilation on lung water in permeability pulmonary edema. J Appl Physiol 66:2223–2230Google Scholar
  327. Slutsky AS (1984) Mechanisms affecting gas transport during high-frequency oscillation. Crit Care Med 12:713–717PubMedGoogle Scholar
  328. Slutsky AS, Drazen JM (2002) Ventilation with small tidal volumes. N Engl J Med 347:630–631PubMedGoogle Scholar
  329. Slutsky AS, Menon AS (1987) Catheter position and blood gases during constant-flow ventilation. J Appl Physiol 62:513–519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. Slutsky AS, Kamm RD, Rossing TH, Loring SH, Lehr J, Shapiro AH, Ingram RH Jr, Drazen JM (1981) Effects of frequency, tidal volume, and lung volume on CO2 elimination in dogs by high frequency (2-30 Hz), low tidal volume ventilation. J Clin Invest 68:1475–1484PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  331. Slutsky AS, Watson J, Leith DE, Brown R (1985) Tracheal insufflation of O2 (TRIO) at low flow rates sustains life for several hours. Anesthesiology 63:278–286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  332. Soo Hoo GW, Santiago S, Williams AJ (1994) Nasal mechanical ventilation for hypercapnic respiratory failure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: determinants of success and failure. Crit Care Med 22:1253–1261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. Spahija J, Beck J, de Marchie M, Comtois A, Sinderby C (2005) Closed-loop control of respiratory drive using pressure-support ventilation: target drive ventilation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 171:1009–1014PubMedGoogle Scholar
  334. Spahija J, de Marchie M, Albert M, Bellemare P, Delisle S, Beck J, Sinderby C (2010) Patient-ventilator interaction during pressure support ventilation and neurally adjusted ventilatory assist. Crit Care Med 38:518–526PubMedGoogle Scholar
  335. Spitzer AR, Butler S, Fox WW (1989) Ventilatory response to combined high frequency jet ventilation and conventional mechanical ventilation for the rescue treatment of severe neonatal lung disease. Pediatr Pulmonol 7:244–250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  336. Stenqvist O (2003) Practical assessment of respiratory mechanics. Br J Anaesth 91:92–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  337. Stock MC, Downs JB, Frolicher D (1987) Airway pressure release ventilation. Crit Care Med 15:462–466PubMedGoogle Scholar
  338. Stresemann E, Votteri BA, Slatter FP (1969) Washout of anatomical deadspace for alveolar hypoventilation. Respiration 26:425–434Google Scholar
  339. Strickland JH, Hasson JH (1991) A computer controlled ventilator weaning system. Chest 100:1096–1099PubMedGoogle Scholar
  340. Suleymanci DS, Marchese A, Garbarini MS et al (2008) Adaptive support ventilation (ASV): an appropriate mechanical ventilation strategy for ARDS ? Anesthesiology 109:A1598Google Scholar
  341. Sulzer CF, Chiolero R, Chassot PG et al (2001) Adaptive support ventilation for fast tracheal extubation after cardiac surgery: a randomized controlled study. Anesthesiology 95:1339–1345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  342. Suter PM, Fairley HB, Isenberg MD (1978) Effect of tidal volume and positive end expiratory pressure on compliance during mechanical ventilation. Chest 73:158–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. Sviri S, Statz O, Stav D et al (2007) Four year experience with adaptive support ventilation in a medical intensive care unit. Intensive Care Med 33:S89Google Scholar
  344. Sydow M, Burchardi H, Ephraim E, Zielmann S, Crozier TA (1994) Long-term effects of two different ventilatory modes on oxygenation in acute lung injury: comparison of airway pressure release ventilation and volume-controlled inverse ratio ventilation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 149:1550–1556PubMedGoogle Scholar
  345. Sznajder JI, Becker CJ, Crawford GP, Wood LDH (1989) Combination of constant-flow and continuous positive-pressure ventilation in canine pulmonary edema. J Appl Physiol 67:817–823PubMedGoogle Scholar
  346. Taccone P, Hess D, Caironi P, Bigatello LM (2004) Continuous positive airway pressure delivered with a "helmet": effects on carbon dioxide rebreathing. Crit Care Med 32:2090–2096PubMedGoogle Scholar
  347. Tarczy-Hornoch P (1994) In-situ interfacial tension during liquid ventilation. Pediatr Res 35:355AGoogle Scholar
  348. Tarczy-Hornoch P (1995) Lung compliance during total and partial liquid ventilation vs. exogenous surfactant. Pediatr Res 37:355AGoogle Scholar
  349. Tarczy-Hornoch P, Hildebrandt J, Standaert TA, Jackson JC (1998) Surfactant replacement increases compliance in premature lamb lungs during partial liquid ventilation in situ. J Appl Physiol 84:1316–1322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  350. Tassaux D, Dalmas E, Gratadour P et al (2002) Patient–ventilator interactions during partial ventilatory support: a preliminary study comparing the effects of adaptive support ventilation with synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation plus inspiratory pressure support. Crit Care Med 30(4):801–807PubMedGoogle Scholar
  351. Tassaux D, Michotte J, Gainnier M, Jolliet P (2003) Effects of adjustable expiratory trigger on delayed cycling during pressure support in obstructive disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 167:A301Google Scholar
  352. Teague WG (2003) Noninvasive ventilation in the pediatric intensive care unit for children with acute respiratory failure. Pediatr Pulmonol 35:418–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  353. Thille AW, Rodriguez P, Cabello B, Lellouche F, Brochard L (2006) Patient-ventilator asynchrony during assisted mechanical ventilation. Intensive Care Med 32:1515–1522PubMedGoogle Scholar
  354. Thille AW, Cabello B, Galia F, Lyazidi A, Brochard L (2008) Reduction of patient-ventilator asynchrony by reducing tidal volume during pressure-support ventilation. Intensive Care Med 34:1477–1486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  355. Thome U, Pohlandt F (1998) Effect of the TI/TE ratio on mean intratracheal pressure in high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. J Appl Physiol 84:1520–1527PubMedGoogle Scholar
  356. Thome U, Kossel H, Lipowsky G, Porz F, Furste HO, Genzel-Boroviczeny O, Troger J, Oppermann HC, Hogel J, Pohlandt F (1999) Randomized comparison of high-frequency ventilation with high-rate intermittent positive pressure ventilation in preterm infants with respiratory failure. J Pediatr 135:39–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  357. Tobin MJ, Perez W, Guenther SM, Semmes BJ, Mador MJ, Allen SJ, Lodato RF, Dantzker DR (1986) The pattern of breathing during successful and unsuccessful trials of weaning from mechanical ventilation. Am Rev Respir Dis 134:1111–1118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  358. Tokioka H, Saito S, Kosaka F (1989) Effect of pressure support ventilation on breathing pattern and respiratory work. Intensive Care Med 15:491–494PubMedGoogle Scholar
  359. Tokioka H, Tanaka T, Ishizu T, Fukushima T, Iwaki T, Nakamura Y, Kosogabe Y (2001) The effect of breath termination criterion on breathing patterns and the work of breathing during pressure support ventilation. Anesth Analg 92:161–165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  360. Tsuboi T, Ohi M, Kita H, Otsuka N, Hirata H, Noguchi T, Chin K, Mishima M, Kuno K (1999) The efficacy of a custom-fabricated nasal mask on gas exchange during nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation. Eur Respir J 13:152–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  361. Valentine DD, Hammond MD, Downs JB, Sears NJ, Sims WR (1991) Distribution of ventilation and perfusion with different modes of mechanical ventilation. Am Rev Respir Dis 142:1262–1266Google Scholar
  362. Van de Graff WB, Gordey K, Dornseif SE, Dries DJ, Kleinman BS, Kumar P, Mathru M (1991) Pressure support. Changes in ventilatory pattern and components of the work of breathing. Chest 100:1082–1089Google Scholar
  363. van Genderingen HR, van Vught AJ, Duval EL, Markhorst DG, Jansen JR (2002) Attenuation of pressure swings along the endotracheal tube is indicative of optimal distending pressure during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in a model of acute lung injury. Pediatr Pulmonol 33:429–436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  364. Vargas F, Thille A, Lyazidi A, Campo FR, Brochard L (2009) Helmet with specific settings versus facemask for noninvasive ventilation. Crit Care Med 37:1921–1928PubMedGoogle Scholar
  365. Venegas JG, Fredberg JJ (1994) Understanding the pressure cost of ventilation: why does high-frequency ventilation work? Crit Care Med 22:S49–S57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  366. Waisel DB, Fackler JC, Brunner JX et al (1995) PEFIOS: an expert closed-loop oxygenation algorithm. Medinfo 8:1132–1136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  367. Waters KA, Everett FM, Bruderer JW, Sullivan CE (1995) Obstructive sleep apnea: the use of nasal CPAP in 80 children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 152:780–785PubMedGoogle Scholar
  368. Watson JW, Burwen DR, Kamm RD, Brown R, Slutsky AS (1986) Effect of flow rate on blood gases during constant flow ventilation in dogs. Am Rev Respir Dis 133:626–629PubMedGoogle Scholar
  369. Watson K, Al-Khadra S, Thompson JE et al (1999) Evaluation of the effect of endotracheal tube leak on the performance of Hamilton Galileo ventilator in the adaptive ventilation mode in the pediatric setting. Respir Care R107Google Scholar
  370. Wilson JM, Thompson JR, Schnitzer JJ, Bower LK, Lillehei CW, Perlman ND, Kolobow TJ (1993) Intratracheal pulmonary ventilation and congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a report of two cases. J Pediatr Surg 28:484–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  371. Wiswell TE, Graziani LJ, Kornhauser MS et al (1996) High‑frequency jet ventilation in the early management of respiratory distress syndrome is associated with a greater risk for adverse outcomes. Pediatrics 98:1035–1043PubMedGoogle Scholar
  372. Wolf GK, Arnold JH (2005) Noninvasive assessment of lung volume: respiratory inductance plethysmography and electrical impedance tomography. Crit Care Med 33:S163–S169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  373. Wolfson MR (1995) Effect of intra-tracheal PFC on pulmonary blood flow in surfactant treated preterm lambs. Physiol Zool 68:71Google Scholar
  374. Wolfson MR, Shaffer TH (1990) Liquid ventilation during early development: theory, physiologic processes and application. J Dev Physiol 13:1–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  375. Wolfson MR, Greenspan JS, Shaffer TH (1996) Pulmonary administration of vasoactive substances by perfluorochemical ventilation. Pediatrics 97:449–455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  376. Wong M (1967) Effects of continuous pressure breathing on right ventricular volumes. J Appl Physiol 22:1053–1060Google Scholar
  377. Wrigge H, Zinserling J, Neumann P et al (2003) Spontaneous breathing improves lung aeration in oleic-acid induced lung injury. Anesthesiology 99:376–384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  378. Wu CC, Yang SS, Chen CC et al (2004) The setting of minute volume in adaptive support ventilation. Intensive Care Med 30:S19Google Scholar
  379. Wysocki M, Brunner JX (2007) Close loop ventilation: an emerging standard of care? Crit Care Clin 23:223–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  380. Wysocki M, Cracco C, Teixeira A, Mercat A, Diehl JL, Lefort Y, Derenne JP, Similowski T (2006) Reduced breathing variability as a predictor of unsuccessful patient separation from mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med 34:2076–2083PubMedGoogle Scholar
  381. Yañez LJ, Yunge M, Emilfork M, Lapadula M, Alcántara A, Fernández C, Lozano J, Contreras M, Conto L, Arevalo C, Gayan A, Hernández F, Pedraza M, Feddersen M, Bejares M, Morales M, Mallea F, Glasinovic M, Cavada G (2008) A prospective, randomized, controlled trial of noninvasive ventilation in pediatric acute respiratory failure. Pediatr Crit Care Med 9:484–489PubMedGoogle Scholar
  382. Yildizdas D, Yilmaz HL, Erdem S (2008) Treatment of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema by helmet-delivered non-invasive pressure support ventilation in children with scorpion sting envenomation. Ann Acad Med Singapore 37:230–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  383. Yilmaz M, Gajic O (2008) Optimal ventilator settings in acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Eur J Anaesthesiol 25:89–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  384. Younes M (1992) Proportional assist ventilation, a new approach to ventilatory support. Theory. Am Rev Respir Dis 145:114–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  385. Younes M, Puddy A, Roberts D, Light RB, Quesada A, Taylor K, Oppenheimer L, Cramp H (1992) Proportional assist ventilation. Results of an initial clinical trial. Am Rev Respir Dis 145:121–129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  386. Yu C, He WG, So JM et al (1987) Improvement in arterial oxygenation control using multiple-model adaptive control procedures. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 8:567–574Google Scholar
  387. Zahorec M, Kovacikova L, Martanovic P, Skrak P, Kunovsky P (2009) The use of high-frequency jet ventilation for removal of obstructing casts in patients with plastic bronchitis. Pediatr Crit Care Med 10:e34–e36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  388. Zhu G, Shaffer TH, Wolfson MR (2004) Continuous tracheal gas insufflation during partial liquid ventilation in juvenile rabbits with acute lung injury. J Appl Physiol 96(4):1415–1424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  389. Zhu GF, Zhang W et al (2006) Effects of continuous tracheal gas insufflation during pressure limited ventilation on pulmonary surfactant in rabbits with acute lung injury. Chin Med J (Engl) 119(17):1415–1420Google Scholar
  390. Zimová-Herknerová M, Plavka R (2006) Expired tidal volumes measured by hot-wire anemometer during high-frequency oscillation in preterm infants. Pediatr Pulmonol 41:428–433PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean-Michel Arnal
    • 1
    Email author
  • Eduardo Bancalari
    • 2
  • Katherine C. Clement
    • 3
  • Sherry E. Courtney
    • 4
  • Claude Danan
    • 5
  • Steven M. Donn
    • 6
  • Xavier Durrmeyer
    • 5
  • Guillaume Emeriaud
    • 8
  • Sandrine Essouri
    • 9
  • Francesco Grasso
    • 10
  • Mark J. Heulitt
    • 3
  • Brian P. Kavanagh
    • 10
  • Martin Keszler
    • 11
  • Paul Ouellet
    • 11
  • Jane J. Pillow
    • 11
  • Ronald C. SandersJr.
    • 7
  • Thomas Schaffer
    • 11
  • Andreas Schulze
    • 11
  • Sunil K. Sinha
    • 12
  1. 1.Service de réanimation polyvalenteHopital Sainte MusseToulonFrance
  2. 2.Division of Neonatology, Department of PediatricsUniversity of Miami Miller School of MedicineMiamiUSA
  3. 3.Department of PediatricsUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA
  4. 4.Section of Neonatology, Department of PediatricsUniversity of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Arkansas Children’s HospitalLittle RockUSA
  5. 5.Department of Neonatal Intensive Care UnitCentre Hospitalier Intercommunal de CreteilCréteilFrance
  6. 6.Division of Neonatal-Perinatal MedicineF4790 C.S. Mott Children’s Hospital, University of Michigan Health SystemAnn ArborUSA
  7. 7.Section of Critical Care, Department of PediatricsUniversity of Arkansas College of Medicine Arkansas Children’s HospitalLittle RockUSA
  8. 8.Soins Intensifs Pédiatriques, CHU Sainte-JustineMontréalCanada
  9. 9.Paediatric Intensive Care UnitKremlin Bicetre HospitalLe Kremlin BicêtreFrance
  10. 10.Departments of Critical Care Medicine and Anesthesia, Program in Physiology and Experimental MedicineHospital for Sick Children, University of TorontoTorontoCanada
  11. 11.Department of PediatricsAlpert Medical School of Brown University, Women and Infants HospitalProvidenceUSA
  12. 12.Paediatrics and Neonatal MedicineThe James Cook University of Hospital, University of DurhamMiddlesbroughUK

Personalised recommendations