• Carl Vogel
  • Jerom F. Janssen
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5398)


A temporal analysis of emoticon use in Swedish, Italian, German and English asynchronous electronic communication is reported. Emoticons are classified as positive, negative or neutral. Postings to newsgroups over a 66 week period are considered. The aggregate analysis of emoticon use in newsgroups for science and politics tends on the whole to be consistent over the entire time period. Where possible, events that coincide with divergences from trends in language-subject pairs are noted. Political discourse in Italian over the period shows marked use of negative emoticons, and in German and Swedish, positive emoticons.


emoticons intercultural analysis extra-linguistic cues 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carl Vogel
    • 1
  • Jerom F. Janssen
    • 1
  1. 1.Computational Linguistics Group, O’Reilly InstituteTrinity College DublinDublin 2Ireland

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