Reactive Oxygen-Generating NADPH Oxidases in Plants
Reactive oxygens produced by the integral membrane protein NADPH oxidase (NOX) function in defense, development, and redox-dependent signaling. They share common structural features and are evolutionarily of ancient origin and thus ubiquitous in eukaryotes. In plants, NOX are part of a multigene family and are implicated in diverse events including innate immunity and development. Due to the fact that reactive oxygens are toxic, and in many cases short-lived, the activity of these oxidases is tightly regulated both temporally and spatially. The recent elucidation of domains for activation by calcium and Rac binding in NOX as well as its positioning on membrane lipid rafts sketches a fascinating picture of its functional dynamics. This review draws upon comparative structure–function relationships between plant and animal NOXs to portray novel aspects of their biology.
KeywordsReactive Oxygen Species Reactive Oxygen Species Production Lipid Raft Chronic Granulomatous Disease Reactive Oxygen Species Signal
The author acknowledges the support of the Dr. Josef Cohn MINERVA Center for Biomembrane Research.
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