It has been shown already that the systems of innovation research agenda at whatever scale of cluster or nations, has been defined, predominantly, within national borders. The research has emphasised the endogenous and proximity based characteristics of systemic innovation. Chapter 5 suggested that the structure of multi-spatial systems of innovation could be investigated though inter-country input-output modelling.
The next four chapters present a series of different perspectives on the scale, and spatial structure of inter-regional interdependencies. This is achieved through specifically examining the specialisation of locations, globalised products and the strong trade linkages between nations.