Conclusions on the Architecture of Economies
The neo-Schumpeterian research agenda has a wide variety of foci, but during the 1990s it became increasingly dominated by a geographic emphasis on systems of innovation, which are typically described as national or sub-national (clusters and regions). The attitude of Freeman (2002, p. 209) in choosing to concentrate ‘on developments at the national level in the belief that the major phenomena of forging ahead, catch-up and falling behind in nineteenth and the twentieth centuries can most plausibly be explained in terms of national systems’ appears to be representative of the attitude. The sub-national systems perspective, although focusing on a different spatial scale, also characteristically terminates with national borders. At both the national and sub-nation systems level, the interest is in studying the history of places, looking for endogenous regional factors of success and policy options for the future.