Towards a Conceptual Model of Talking to a Route Planner

  • Stephan Winter
  • Yunhui Wu
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5373)


Imagine a (web-based or mobile) route planning service that understands and behaves like another person. This conceptual paper addresses the first step towards this vision. It looks at the ways people would like to talk to their route planner in the initial phase of the route communication when specifying the travel route and time. The paper systematically collects service requirements, based on elements from intelligent autonomous agents, and demonstrates that a fundamental change is required compared to how services operate today.


web-based route planning human computer interface ontologies place 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Brooks, R.A.: Intelligence without reason. In: Myopoulos, J., Reiter, R. (eds.) 12th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence IJCAI 1991. San Mateo, CA, pp. 569–595. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Francisco (1991)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Burnett, G.E.: “Turn right at the traffic lights”: The requirement for landmarks in vehicle navigation systems. The Journal of Navigation 53(3), 499–510 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dale, R.: Generating Referring Expressions: Constructing Descriptions in a Domain of Objects and Processes. MIT Press, Cambridge (1992)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dale, R., Geldof, S., Prost, J.P.: Using Natural Language Generation in Automatic Route Description. Journal of Research and Practice in Information Technology 37(1), 89–105 (2005)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Daniel, M.P., Tom, A., Manghi, E., Denis, M.: Testing the value of route directions through navigational performance. Spatial Cognition and Computation 3(4), 269–289 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Denis, M.: The description of routes: A cognitive approach to the production of spatial discourse. Current Psychology of Cognition 16, 409–458 (1997)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Denis, M., Pazzaglia, F., Cornoldi, C., Bertolo, L.: Spatial Discourse and Navigation: An Analysis of Route Directions in the City of Venice. Applied Cognitive Psychology 13, 145–174 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Duckham, M., Worboys, M.: Computational Structure in Three-Valued Nearness Relations. In: Montello, D.R. (ed.) COSIT 2001. LNCS, vol. 2205, pp. 76–91. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Egenhofer, M.: What’s special about spatial? Database requirements for vehicle navigation in geographic space. In: ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data, Washington, pp. 398–402. ACM Press, New York (1993)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Egenhofer, M.J., Mark, D.M.: Naive Geography. In: Frank, A.U., Kuhn, W. (eds.) Spatial Information Theory. LNCS, vol. 988, pp. 1–15. Springer, Berlin (1995)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Egenhofer, M.J.: Query Processing in Spatial-Query-by-Sketch. Journal of Visual Languages and Computing 8(4), 403–424 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Elias, B., Sester, M.: Incorporating landmarks with quality measures in routing procedures. In: Raubal, M., Miller, H.J., Frank, A.U., Goodchild, M.F. (eds.) GIScience 2006. LNCS, vol. 4197, pp. 65–80. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Frank, A.U.: Ontology. In: Kemp, K.K. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Geographic Information Science. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks (2007)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Freundschuh, S.M., Mark, D.M., Gopal, S., Gould, M.D., Couclelis, H.: Verbal Directions for Wayfinding: Implications for Navigation and Geographic Information and Analysis Systems. In: Brassel, K., Kishimoto, H. (eds.) 4th International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, Zurich, Department of Geography, pp. 478–487. University of Zurich (1990)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hansen, S., Richter, K.F., Klippel, A.: Landmarks in OpenLS: A Data Structure for Cognitive Ergonomic Route Directions. In: Raubal, M., Miller, H.J., Frank, A.U., Goodchild, M.F. (eds.) GIScience 2006. LNCS, vol. 4197, pp. 128–144. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hill, L.L.: Georeferencing: The Geographic Associations of Information. In: Digital Libraries and Electronic Publishing. MIT Press, Cambridge (2006)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hirtle, S.C., Jonides, J.: Evidence of hierarchies in cognitive maps. Memory and Cognition 13(3), 208–217 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Janelle, D.G.: Impact of information technologies. In: Hanson, S., Giuliano, G. (eds.) The Geography of Urban Transportation. pp. 86–112. Guilford Press, New York (2004)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Klein, W.: Wegauskünfte. Zeitschrift für Literaturwissenschaft und Linguistik 33, 9–57 (1979)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Klein, W.: Local Deixis in Route Directions. In: Jarvella, R.J., Klein, W. (eds.) Speech, Place, and Action. pp. 161–182. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester (1982)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Klippel, A., Tappe, H., Habel, C.: Pictorial representations of routes: Chunking route segments during comprehension. In: Freksa, C., Brauer, W., Habel, C., Wender, K.F. (eds.) Spatial Cognition III. LNCS, vol. 2685, pp. 11–33. Springer, Berlin (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kuhn, W.: Why Information Science needs Cognitive Semantics. In: Workshop on the Potential of Cognitive Semantics for Ontologies (FOIS 2004), Torino, Italy (2004)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lynch, K.: The Image of the City. MIT Press, Cambridge (1960)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Maaß, W.: Von visuellen Daten zu inkrementellen Wegbeschreibungen in dreidimensionalen Umgebungen: Das Modell eines kognitiven Agenten. Phd thesis, Universität des Saarlandes (1996)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Miller, H.J.: Activities in Space and Time. In: Hensher, D.A., Button, K.J., Haynes, K.E., Stopher, P.R. (eds.) Handbook of Transport Geography and Spatial Systems. Handbooks in Transport, vol. 5, pp. 647–660. Elsevier, Amsterdam (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Paraboni, I., Deemter, K.: Generating Easy References: The Case of Document Deixis. In: Second International Conference on Natural Language Generation (INLG 2002), New York, USA, pp. 113–119 (2002)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Paraboni, I., Deemter, K.v., Masthoff, J.: Generating referring expressions: Making referents easy to identify. Computational Linguistics 33(2), 229–254 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Plumert, J.M., Carswell, C., DeVet, K., Ihrig, D.: The Content and Organization of Communication about Object Locations. Journal of Memory and Language 34, 477–498 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Plumert, J.M., Spalding, T.L., Nichols-Whitehead, P.: Preferences for ascending and descending hierarchical organization in spatial communication. Memory and Cognition 29(2), 274–284 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Popper, K.: The Logic of Scientific Discovery. Routledge Classics. Routledge, London (2002)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Raubal, M., Winter, S.: Enriching Wayfinding Instructions with Local Landmarks. In: Egenhofer, M.J., Mark, D.M. (eds.) GIScience 2002. LNCS, vol. 2478, pp. 243–259. Springer, Berlin (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Richter, K.F., Klippel, A.: A Model for Context-Specific Route Directions. In: Freksa, C., Knauff, M., Krieg-Brückner, B., Nebel, B., Barkowsky, T. (eds.) Spatial Cognition IV. LNCS, vol. 3343, pp. 58–78. Springer, Berlin (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Richter, K.F., Klippel, A.: Before or after: Prepositions in spatially constrained systems. In: Barkowsky, T., Knauff, M., Ligozat, G., Montello, D.R. (eds.) Spatial Cognition 2007. LNCS, vol. 4387, pp. 453–469. Springer, Berlin (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Richter, K.F.: Context-Specific Route Directions. Monograph Series of the Transregional Collaborative Research Center SFB/TR8, vol. 3. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, Berlin (2008)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Richter, K.F., Tomko, M., Winter, S.: A dialog-driven process of generating route directions. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems 32(3), 233–245 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rüetschi, U.J., Timpf, S.: Modelling wayfinding in public transport: Network space and scene space. In: Freksa, C., Knauff, M., Krieg-Brückner, B., Nebel, B., Barkowsky, T. (eds.) Spatial Cognition IV. LNCS, vol. 3343, pp. 24–41. Springer, Berlin (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Shanon, B.: Where Questions (1979),
  38. 38.
    Shanon, B.: Answers to Where-Questions. Discourse Processes 6, 319–352 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Shekhar, S., Vatsavai, R.R., Ma, X., Yoo, J.S.: Navigation systems: A spatial database perspective. In: Schiller, J., Voisard, A. (eds.) Location-Based Services, pp. 41–80. Morgan Kaufmann Pubblishers, San Francisco (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Smith, B.: Ontology and information science. In: Zalta, E.N., Nodelman, U., Allen, C. (eds.) Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Center for the Study of Language and Information, Stanford University, Stanford (2003)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Stokes, N., Li, Y., Moffat, A., Rong, J.: An empirical study of the effects of NLP components on geographic IR performance. International Journal of Geographical Information Science 22(3), 247–264 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Tenbrink, T.: Space, Time, and the Use of Language: An Investigation of Relationships. Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin (2007)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Timpf, S., Volta, G.S., Pollock, D.W., Frank, A.U., Egenhofer, M.J.: A conceptual model of wayfinding using multiple levels of abstraction. In: Frank, A.U., Campari, I., Formentini, U. (eds.) GIS 1992. LNCS, vol. 639, pp. 348–367. Springer, Berlin (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Timpf, S.: Ontologies of wayfinding: A traveler’s perspective. Networks and Spatial Economics 2(1), 9–33 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Tom, A., Denis, M.: Referring to landmark or street information in route directions: What difference does it make? In: Kuhn, W., Worboys, M.F., Timpf, S. (eds.) COSIT 2003. LNCS, vol. 2825, pp. 362–374. Springer, Berlin (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Tomko, M., Winter, S.: Pragmatic construction of destination descriptions for urban environments. Spatial Cognition and Computation (accepted August 21, 2008)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Tomko, M., Winter, S., Claramunt, C.: Experiential hierarchies of streets. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems 32(1), 41–52 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Turing, A.M.: Computing machinery and intelligence. Mind 59(236), 433–460 (1950)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Weiser, M.: The Computer for the Twenty-First Century. Scientific American (9), 94–104 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Wiener, J.M., Mallot, H.A.: Fine-to-coarse route planning and navigation in regionalized environments. Spatial Cognition and Computation 3(4), 331–358 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wilson, D., Sperber, D.: Relevance Theory. In: Horn, L.R., Ward, G. (eds.) Handbook of Pragmatics, pp. 607–632. Blackwell, Oxford (2004)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Winter, S., Tomko, M., Elias, B., Sester, M.: Landmark hierarchies in context. Environment and Planning B 35(3), 381–398 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Winter, S., Wu, Y.: The spatial Turing test. In: Navratil, G. (ed.) Colloquium for Andrew U. Frank’s 60th Birthday, Geoinfo Series, Vienna, Austria. vol. 39, pp. 109–116. Department for Geoinformation and Cartography, Technical University Vienna (2008)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Wunderlich, D., Reinelt, R.: How to get there from here. In: Jarvella, R.J., Klein, W. (eds.) Speech, Place, and Action, pp. 183–201. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester (1982)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephan Winter
    • 1
  • Yunhui Wu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeomaticsThe University of MelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations