A Framework for 3D Geospatial Buffering of Events of Interest in Critical Infrastructures

  • Nils Kalstad Svendsen
  • Stephen D. Wolthusen
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5141)


The interdependencies among critical infrastructures are frequently characterized not only by logical dependencies and resource flows but often also require consideration of geospatial interactions among the infrastructure elements and surroundings such as the terrain, properties of the terrain, and of events involving the infrastructure such as fire and flooding. Modeling such events and interactions also requires the use not only of three-dimensional geospatial models but also a more precise characterization of both events and the interaction of events with the geospatial model to capture e.g. the resistance of different terrain features to blasts. In this paper we therefore present an extension to a graph-based model reported previously which allows the consideration of geospatial interdependencies and interactions in a specific area of interest. The model incorporates physical characteristics of both the infrastructure elements itself and of terrain and environment in a three-dimensional framework allowing for detailed analyses which cannot be captured using simpler spatial buffering techniques as found in many geospatial information systems.


Infrastructure Models Geospatial Information Systems Infrastructure Interdependency Analysis Infrastructure Planning 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Svendsen, N.K., Wolthusen, S.D.: Multigraph Dependency Models for Heterogeneous Infrastructures. In: First Annual IFIP Working Group 11.10 International Conference on Critical Infrastructure Protection, Hanover, NH, USA, IFIP, pp. 117–130. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Svendsen, N.K., Wolthusen, S.D.: Connectivity models of interdependency in mixed-type critical infrastructure networks. Information Security Technical Report 12(1), 44–55 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Svendsen, N.K., Wolthusen, S.D.: Analysis and Statistical Properties of Critical Infrastructure Interdependency Multiflow Models. In: Proceedings from the Eighth Annual IEEE SMC Information Assurance Workshop, United States Military Academy, West Point, NY, USA, pp. 247–254. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (2007)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Svendsen, N.K., Wolthusen, S.D.: An analysis of cyclical interdependencies in critical infrastructures. CRITIS 2007 (accepted for publication, October 2007)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Worboys, M., Duckham, M.: GIS: A Computing Perspective, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2004)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Khuan, C.T., Rahman, A.A.: Geo-information for disaster management. In: van Oosterom, P., Zlatanova, S., Fendel, E.M. (eds.) Peter van Oosterom and Siyka Zlatanova and Elfriede M, pp. 841–865. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cleaver, R.P., Humphreys, C.E., Morgan, J.D., Robinson, C.G.: Development of a model to predict the effects of explosions in compact congested regions. Journal of Hazardous Materials 53(1), 35–55 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Alonso, F.D., Ferradása, E.G., Sánchez Péreza, J.F., Miñana Aznara, A., Ruiz Gimenoa, J., Martínez Alonso, J.: Characteristic overpressure-impulse-distance curves for vapour cloud explosions using the TNO Multi-Energy model. Journal of Hazardous Materials 137(2), 734–741 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wolthusen, S.D.: Modeling Critical Infrastructure Requirements. In: Proceedings from the Fifth Annual IEEE SMC Information Assurance Workshop, United States Military Academy, West Point, NY, USA, pp. 258–265. IEEE Press, Los Alamitos (2004)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wolthusen, S.D.: GIS-based Command and Control Infrastructure for Critical Infrastructure Protection. In: Proceedings of the First IEEE International Workshop on Critical Infrastructure Protection (IWCIP 2005), Darmstadt, Germany, pp. 40–47. IEEE Press, Los Alamitos (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Stamey, B., Carey, K., Smith, W., Smith, B., Stern, A., Mineart, G., Lynn, S., Wang, H., Forrest, D., Kyoung-Ho, C., Billet, J.: An Integrated Coastal Observation and Flood Warning System: Rapid Prototype Development. In: Proceedings of OCEANS 2006, Boston, MA, USA, pp. 1–6. IEEE Press, Los Alamitos (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mladineo, N., Knezic, S.: Optimisation of Forest Fire Sensor Network Using GIS Technology. In: Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Information Technology Interfaces (ITI 2000), Pula, Croatia, pp. 391–396. IEEE Press, Los Alamitos (2000)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Patterson, S.A., Apostolakis, G.E.: Identification of critical locations across multiple infrastructures for terrorist actions. Reliability Engineering & System Safety 92(9), 1183–1203 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Real Time Analysis for Early Warning Systems. In: Pollert, J., Dedus, B. (eds.) Security of Water Supply Systems: From Source to Tap. NATO Security through Science Series, vol. 8, pp. 65–84. Springer, Berlin (2006)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Communications Infrastructure Security: Dynamic Reconfiguration of Network Topologies in Response to Disruption. In: Casey, M.J. (ed.) Protection of Civilian Infrastructure from Acts of Terrorism. NATO Security through Science Series, vol. 11, pp. 231–246. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Spaulding, M.L., Swanson, J.C., Jayko, K., Whittier, N.: An LNG release, transport, and fate model system for marine spills. Journal of Hazardous Materials 140(3), 488–503 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Scollo, S., Carloa, P.D., Coltellia, M.: Tephra fallout of 2001 Etna flank eruption: Analysis of the deposit and plume dispersion. Journal of Vulcanology and Geothermal Research 160(1–2), 147–164 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nils Kalstad Svendsen
    • 1
  • Stephen D. Wolthusen
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Norwegian Information Security LaboratoryGjøvik University CollegeGjøvikNorway
  2. 2.Information Security Group, Department of MathematicsRoyal Holloway, University of LondonEghamUK

Personalised recommendations