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The Life Cycle of the Endocannabinoids: Formation and Inactivation

  • Stephen P. H. AlexanderEmail author
  • David A. Kendall
Chapter
Part of the Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences book series (CTBN, volume 1)

Abstract

In this chapter, we summarise the current thinking about the nature of endocannabinoids. In describing the life cycle of these agents, we highlight the synthetic and catabolic enzymes suggested to be involved. For each of these, we provide a systematic analysis of information on sequence, subcellular and cellular distribution, as well as physiological and pharmacological substrates, enhancers and inhibitors, together with brief descriptions of the impact of manipulating enzyme levels through genetic mechanisms (dealt with in more detail in the chapter “Genetic Models of the Endocannabinoid System” by Monory and Lutz, this volume). In addition, we describe experiments investigating the stimulation of endocannabinoid synthesis and release in intact cell systems.

Keywords

2-arachidonoylglycerol Anandamide Diacylglcyerol lipase Endocannabinoid turnover Fatty acid amide hydrolase N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D 

Abbreviations

2AG

2-Arachidonoylglycerol

2AG-3P

2-Arachidonoylglycerol-3-phosphate

AEA

Anandamide, N-arachidonoylethanolamine

COX

Cyclooxygenase

DAG

Diacylglycerol

DGL

Diacylglycerol lipase

DSI

Depolarization-evoked suppression of inhibition

ECB

Endocannabinoid

EET

Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid

Epac

Exchange protein activated by cyclic AMP

FAAH

Fatty acid amide hydrolase

LOX

Lipoxygenase

LPI

Lysophosphatidylinositol

LPLC

Lysophospholipase C

LPLD

Lysophospholipase D

lysoNAPE

Lyso-N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine

MAFP

Methylarachidonylfluorophosphonate

MGL

Monoacylglycerol lipase

NAAA

N-Acylethanolamine acid amidase

NAE

N-Acylethanolamine

NAPE

N-Acylphosphatidylethanolamine

ODA

Oleamide

OEA

N-Oleoylethanolamine

PE

Phosphatidylethanolamine

PEA

N-Palmitoylethanolamine

PIP2

Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate

PLA1

Phospholipase A1

PLA2

Phospholipase A2

PLB

Phospholipase B

PLC

Phospholipase C

PLD

Phospholipase D

SEA

N-Stearoylethanolamine

THL

Tetrahydrolipstatin

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Biomedical Sciences and Institute of NeuroscienceUniversity of Nottingham Medical SchoolNottinghamUK

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