The goal of domain-specific languages (DSLs) is to increase the productivity of software engineers by abstracting from low-level boilerplate code. Introduction of DSLs in the software development process requires a smooth workflow for the production of DSLs themselves. This requires technology for designing and implementing DSLs, but also a methodology for using that technology. That is, a collection of guidelines, design patterns, and reusable DSL components that show developers how to tackle common language design and implementation issues. This paper presents a case study in domain-specific language engineering. It reports on a project in which the author designed and built WebDSL, a DSL for web applications with a rich data model, using several DSLs for DSL engineering: SDF for syntax definition and Stratego/XT for code generation. The paper follows the stages in the development of the DSL. The contributions of the paper are three-fold. (1) A tutorial in the application of the specific SDF and Stratego/XT technology for building DSLs. (2) A description of an incremental DSL development process. (3) A domain-specific language for web-applications with rich data models. The paper concludes with a survey of related approaches.


Concrete Syntax Attribute Grammar Core Language Host Language Language Engineer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Eclipse IDE Meta-tooling Platform (IMP),
  2. 2.
    Echo web framework (July 2007),
  3. 3.
    Aho, A., Sethi, R., Ullman, J.: Compilers: Principles, techniques, and tools. Addison-Wesley, Reading (1986)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Atkins, D.L., Ball, T., Bruns, G., Cox, K.: Mawl: A domain-specific language for form-based services. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering 25(3), 334–346 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Augusteijn, A.: Functional Programming, Program Transformations and Compiler Construction. PhD thesis, Department of Computing Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands (1993)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Baader, F., Nipkow, T.: Term Rewriting and All That. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1998)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Backus, J.W.: Automatic programming: properties and performance of FORTRAN systems I and II. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on the Mechanisation of Thought Processes, Teddington, Middlesex, England, The National Physical Laboratory (November 1958)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Backus, J.W., et al.: Report on the algorithmic language ALGOL 60. Communications of the ACM 3(5), 299–314 (1960)CrossRefMathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Balat, V.: Ocsigen: typing web interaction with objective Caml. In: Kennedy, A., Pottier, F. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM Workshop on ML, Portland, Oregon, USA, pp. 84–94. ACM, New York (September 2006)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bauer, C., King, G.: Java Persistence with Hibernate. In: Manning, Greenwhich, NY, USA (2007)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Beck, K.: Extreme Programming Explained. Addison-Wesley, Reading (2000)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bentley, J.L.: Programming pearls: Little languages. Communications of the ACM 29(8), 711–721 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brabrand, C., Møller, A., Ricky, M., Schwartzbach, M.I.: PowerForms: Declarative client-side form field validation. World Wide Web Journal 3(4), 205–314 (2000)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brabrand, C., Möller, A., Schwartzbach, M.I.: The < bigwig > project. ACM Transactions on Internet Technology 2(2), 79–114 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bravenboer, M.: Connecting XML processing and term rewriting with tree grammars. Master’s thesis, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands (November 2003)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bravenboer, M., Dolstra, E., Visser, E.: Preventing injection attacks with syntax embeddings. A host and guest language independent approach. In: Lawall, J. (ed.) Generative Programming and Component Engineering (GPCE 2007), pp. 3–12. ACM, New York (October 2007)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bravenboer, M., Kalleberg, K.T., Vermaas, R., Visser, E.: Stratego/XT 0.16. Components for transformation systems. In: ACM SIGPLAN 2006 Workshop on Partial Evaluation and Program Manipulation (PEPM 2006), Charleston, South Carolina, pp. 95–99. ACM SIGPLAN, New York (January 2006)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bravenboer, M., Kalleberg, K.T., Vermaas, R., Visser, E.: Stratego/XT Tutorial, Examples, and Reference Manual (latest). Department of Information and Computing Sciences, Universiteit Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands (2006),
  19. 19.
    Bravenboer, M., Kalleberg, K.T., Vermaas, R., Visser, E.: Stratego/XT 0.17. A language and toolset for program transformation. In: Science of Computer Programming (2008); Special issue on Experimental Systems and ToolsGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bravenboer, M., van Dam, A., Olmos, K., Visser, E.: Program transformation with scoped dynamic rewrite rules. Fundamenta Informaticae 69(1–2), 123–178 (2006)MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bravenboer, M., Visser, E.: Concrete syntax for objects. Domain-specific language embedding and assimilation without restrictions. In: Schmidt, D.C. (ed.) Proceedings of the 19th ACM SIGPLAN Conference on Object-Oriented Programing, Systems, Languages, and Applications (OOPSLA 2004), Vancouver, Canada, pp. 365–383. ACM Press, New York (October 2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bravenboer, M., Visser, E.: Designing syntax embeddings and assimilations for language libraries. In: Engels, G., Opdyke, B., Schmidt, D.C., Weil, F. (eds.) MODELS 2007. LNCS, vol. 4735. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Budinsky, F., Steinberg, D., Merks, E., Ellersick, R., Grose, T.J.: Eclipse Modeling Framework. Addison-Wesley, Reading (2004)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chamberlin, D.D., Boyce, R.F.: SEQUEL: A structured english query language. In: Rustin, R. (ed.) Proceedings of 1974 ACM-SIGMOD Workshop on Data Description, Access and Control, Arbor, Michigan, pp. 249–264. ACM, New York (May 1974)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Christensen, A.S., Möller, A., Schwartzbach, M.I.: Extending Java for high-level web service construction. ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems 25(6), 814–875 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Clinger, W.: Macros in scheme. SIGPLAN Lisp Pointers 4(4), 17–23 (1991)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Codd, E.F.: A relational model of data for large shared data banks. Communications of the ACM 13(6), 377–387 (1970)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Consel, C.: From a program family to a domain-specific language. In: Lengauer, C., Batory, D., Consel, C., Odersky, M. (eds.) Domain-Specific Program Generation. LNCS, vol. 3016, pp. 19–29. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Consel, C., Marlet, R.: Architecturing software using a methodology for language development. In: Palamidessi, C., Meinke, K., Glaser, H. (eds.) ALP 1998 and PLILP 1998. LNCS, vol. 1490, pp. 170–194. Springer, Heidelberg (1998)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cook, S., Jones, G., Kent, S., Wills, A.C.: Domain-Specific Development with Visual Studio DSL Tools. Addison-Wesley, Reading (2007)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cordy, J.: The TXL source transformation language. Science of Computer Programming 61(3), 190–210 (2006)CrossRefMathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Czarnecki, K.: Overview of generative software development. In: Banâtre, J.-P., et al. (eds.) UPP 2004. LNCS, vol. 3566, pp. 313–328. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Czarnecki, K., Eisenecker, U.W.: Generative programming: methods, tools, and applications. Addison-Wesley, New York (2000)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Czarnecki, K., Helsen, S.: Feature-based survey of model transformation approaches. IBM Systems Journal 45(3), 621–646 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    de Jonge, M.: A pretty-printer for every occasion. In: Ferguson, I., Gray, J., Scott, L. (eds.) Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Constructing Software Engineering Tools (CoSET 2000). University of Wollongong, Australia (2000)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Dmitriev, S.: Language Oriented Programming: The next programming paradigm (2004),
  37. 37.
    Dolstra, E.: The Purely Functional Software Deployment Model. PhD thesis, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands (January 2006)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dolstra, E., Bravenboer, M., Visser, E.: Service configuration management. In: James Whitehead, J.E., Dahlqvist, A.P. (eds.) 12th International Workshop on Software Configuration Management (SCM-12), Lisbon, Portugal, pp. 83–98. ACM, New York (September 2005)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dolstra, E., Visser, E., de Jonge, M.: Imposing a memory management discipline on software deployment. In: Estublier, J., Rosenblum, D. (eds.) 26th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE 2004), Edinburgh, Scotland, pp. 583–592. IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos (May 2004)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ducasse, S., Lienhard, A., Renggli, L.: Seaside: A flexible environment for building dynamic web applications. IEEE Software, pp. 56–63 (September/ October 2007)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Earley, J.: An Efficient Context-free Parsing Algorithm. PhD thesis, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (1968) (see also [42])Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Earley, J.: An efficient context-free parsing algorithm. Communications of the ACM 13(2), 94–102 (1970)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Efftinge, S., Friese, P., Haase, A., Kadura, C., Kolb, B., Moroff, D., Thoms, K., Völter, M.: openArchitectureWare User Guide. Version 4.2 (2007),
  44. 44.
    Ekman, T., Hedin, G.: Rewritable reference attributed grammars. In: Odersky, M. (ed.) ECOOP 2004. LNCS, vol. 3086, pp. 144–169. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ekman, T., Hedin, G.: The jastadd extensible java compiler. SIGPLAN Notices 42(10), 1–18 (2007)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Fowler, M.: Inversion of control containers and the dependency injection pattern (January 2004),
  47. 47.
    Fowler, M.: Language workbenches: the killer-app for domain specific languages (2005),
  48. 48.
    Gamma, E., Helm, R., Johnson, R., Vlissides, J.: Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software. Addison-Wesley, Reading (1995)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gray, R.W., Heuring, V.P., Levi, S.P., Sloane, A.M., Waite, W.M.: Eli: A complete, flexible compiler construction system. Communications of the ACM 35, 121–131 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gray, R.W., Levi, S.P., Heuring, V.P., Sloane, A.M., Waite, W.M.: Eli: a complete, flexible compiler construction system. Commun. ACM 35(2), 121–130 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Greenfield, J., Short, K.: Software Factories. Assembling Applications with Patterns, Models, Frameworks, and Tools. Wiley, Chichester (2004)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Groenewegen, D., Visser, E.: Declarative access control for WebDSL: Combining language integration and separation of concerns. In: Schwabe, D., Curbera, F. (eds.) International Conference on Web Engineering (ICWE 2008). IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos (July 2008)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Heering, J., Hendriks, P.R.H., Klint, P., Rekers, J.: The syntax definition formalism SDF – reference manual. SIGPLAN Notices 24(11), 43–75 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hemel, Z., Kats, L., Visser, E.: Code generation by model transformation. In: Vallecillo, A., Gray, J., Pierantonio, A. (eds.) ICMT 2008. LNCS, vol. 5063. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hudak, P.: Building domain-specific embedded languages. ACM Comput. Surv. 28, 196 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Seam, J.: Seam - Contextual Components. A Framework for Java EE 5, edition (2007),
  57. 57.
    Johnson, S.C.: YACC—yet another compiler-compiler. Technical Report CS-32, AT & T Bell Laboratories. Murray Hill, N.J (1975)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kats, L., Bravenboer, M., Visser, E.: Mixing source and bytecode. A case for compilation by normalization. In: Kiczales, G. (ed.) Proceedings of the 23rd ACM SIGPLAN Conference on Object-Oriented Programing, Systems, Languages, and Applications (OOPSLA 2008). ACM Press, New York (2008)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kats, L.C.L., Kalleberg, K.T., Visser, E.: Generating editors for embedded languages. integrating SGLR into IMP. In: Johnstone, A., Vinju, J. (eds.) Proceedings of the Eigth Workshop on Language Descriptions, Tools, and Applications (LDTA 2008), Budapest, Hungary (April 2008)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kelly, S., Tolvanen, J.-P.: Domain-Specific Modeling. Enabling Full Code Generation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Chichester (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kent, S.: Model driven engineering. In: Butler, M., Petre, L., Sere, K. (eds.) IFM 2002. LNCS, vol. 2335, pp. 286–298. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Klint, P.: A meta-environment for generating programming environments. ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology 2(2), 176–201 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Knuth, D.E.: Backus Normal Form vs. Backus Naur Form. Communications of the ACM 7(12), 735–736 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Knuth, D.E.: On the translation of languages from left to right. Information and Control 8, 607–639 (1965)CrossRefMathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Knuth, D.E.: Semantics of context-free languages. Mathematical Systems Theory 2(2), 127–145 (1968); Correction in: Mathematical Systems Theory 5(1), 95–96 (1971)CrossRefMathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Knuth, D.E.: The TEXbook. vol. A, Computers and Typesetting. Addison-Wesley, Reading (1984)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Krishnamurthi, S., Hopkins, P.W., McCarthy, J.A., Graunke, P.T., Pettyjohn, G., Felleisen, M.: Implementation and use of the plt scheme web server. Higher-Order and Symbolic Computation 20(4), 431–460 (2007)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lämmel, R., Visser, J.: Typed combinators for generic traversal. In: Krishnamurthi, S., Ramakrishnan, C.R. (eds.) PADL 2002. LNCS, vol. 2257, pp. 137–154. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lamport, L.: LaTeX: A Documentation Preparation System. Addison-Wesley, Reading (1986)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Leijen, D., Meijer, E.: Domain specific embedded compilers. In: Proceedings of the 2nd conference on Domain-specific languages (DSL 1999), pp. 109–122. ACM Press, New York (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Mak, S.: Developing interacting domain specific languages. Master’s thesis, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands, INF/SCR-07-20 (November 2007)Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Mann, K.D.: JavaServer Faces in Action. Manning, Greenwhich, NY, USA (2005)Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Mernik, M., Heering, J., Sloane, A.M.: When and how to develop domain-specific languages. ACM Computing Surveys 37(4), 316–344 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Nusairat, J.F.: Beginning JBoss Seam. Apress, New York (2007)Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Nystrom, N., Clarkson, M.R., Myers, A.C.: Polyglot: An extensible compiler framework for Java. In: Hedin, G. (ed.) CC 2003. LNCS, vol. 2622, pp. 138–152. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    OMG Architecture Board ORMSC. Model driven architecture. OMG document number ormsc/2001-07-01 (July 2001),
  77. 77.
    Parr, T.: The Definitive ANTLR Reference: Building Domain-Specific Languages by Terence Parr. The Pragmatic Programmers (2007)Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Parr, T.J.: Enforcing strict model-view separation in template engines. In: WWW 2004: Proceedings of the 13th international conference on World Wide Web, pp. 224–233. ACM, New York (2004)Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Peyton Jones, S.L. (ed.): Haskell98 Language and Libraries. The Revised Report. Cambridge University Press (2003)Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Queinnec, C.: The influence of browsers on evaluators or, continuations to program web servers. In: International Conference on Functional Programming (ICFP 2000), pp. 23–33. ACM, New York (2000)Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Reps, T., Teitelbaum, T.: The Synthesizer Generator: A System for Constructing Language-Based Editors. Springer, New York (1988)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Schmidt, D.C.: Model-driven engineering. IEEE Computer 39(2), 25–31 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Sheard, T., Peyton Jones, S.L.: Template metaprogramming for Haskell. In: Chakravarty, M.M.T. (ed.) ACM SIGPLAN Haskell Workshop 2002, pp. 1–16 (October 2002)Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Simonyi, C., Christerson, M., Clifford, S.: Intentional software. In: Proceedings of the 21st annual ACM SIGPLAN conference on Object-oriented programming systems, languages, and applications (OOPSLA 2006), pp. 451–464. ACM, New York (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Spinellis, D.: Notable design patterns for domain specific languages. Journal of Systems and Software 56(1), 91–99 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Spinellis, D., Guruprasad, V.: Lightweight languages as software engineering tools. In: USENIX Conference on Domain-Specific Languages, , pp. 67–76. USENIX Association (October 1997)Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Stahl, T., Völter, M.: Model-Driven Software Development. Wiley, Chichester (2005)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Steele Jr, G.L.: Growing a language. Higher-Order and Symbolic Computation 12, 221–236 (1998); (Text of invited talk at OOPSLA 1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Sturm, T., von Voss, J., Boger, M.: Generating code from uml with velocity templates. In: Jézéquel, J.-M., Hussmann, H., Cook, S. (eds.) UML 2002. LNCS, vol. 2460, pp. 150–161. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Sun Microsystems. JSR 220: Enterprise JavaBeansTM, Version 3.0. Java Persistence API (May 2, 2006)Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Tharp, A.L.: The impact of fourth generation programming languages. SIGCSE Bull 16(2), 37–44 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Thiemann, P.: WASH/CGI: Server-side web scripting with sessions and typed, compositional forms. In: Krishnamurthi, S., Ramakrishnan, C.R. (eds.) PADL 2002. LNCS, vol. 2257, pp. 192–208. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Thomas, D., Hansson, D.H.: Agile Web Development with Rails. The Pragmatic Bookshelf (2005)Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Tomita, M.: Efficient Parsing for Natural Languages. A Fast Algorithm for Practical Systems. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (1985)Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Tratt, L.: Domain specific language implementation via compile-time meta-programming. ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems (to appear, 2009)Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    van den Brand, M.G.J., de Jong, H., Klint, P., Olivier, P.: Efficient annotated terms. Software, Practice & Experience 30(3), 259–291 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    van den Brand, M.G.J., Heering, J., Klint, P., Olivier, P.A.: Compiling language definitions: the ASF+SDF compiler. ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems 24(4), 334–368 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    van Deursen, A., Klint, P.: Little languages: Little maintenance? Journal of Software Maintenance 10(2), 75–92 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    van Deursen, A., Klint, P., Visser, J.: Domain-specific languages: An annotated bibliography. SIGPLAN Notices 35(6), 26–36 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    van Wijngaarden, J.: Code generation from a domain specific language. Designing and implementing complex program transformations. Master’s thesis, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands, INF/SCR-03-29 (July 2003)Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Visser, E.: Syntax Definition for Language Prototyping. PhD thesis, University of Amsterdam (September 1997)Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Visser, E.: Meta-programming with concrete object syntax. In: Batory, D., Consel, C., Taha, W. (eds.) GPCE 2002. LNCS, vol. 2487, pp. 299–315. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Visser, E.: Program transformation with Stratego/XT: Rules, strategies, tools, and systems in StrategoXT-0.9. In: Lengauer, C., Batory, D., Consel, C., Odersky, M. (eds.) Domain-Specific Program Generation. LNCS, vol. 3016, pp. 216–238. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Visser, E.: A survey of strategies in rule-based program transformation systems. Journal of Symbolic Computation 40(1), 831–873 (2005); Special issue on Reduction Strategies in Rewriting and ProgrammingCrossRefMathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Visser, E., Benaissa, Z.-e.-A., Tolmach, A.: Building program optimizers with rewriting strategies. In: Proceedings of the third ACM SIGPLAN International Conference on Functional Programming (ICFP 1998), pp. 13–26. ACM Press, New York (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    W3C. Cascading Style Sheets, level 2. CSS2 Specification (May 1998),
  107. 107.
    Warmer, J.: A model driven software factory using domain specific languages. In: Akehurst, D.H., Vogel, R., Paige, R.F. (eds.) ECMDA-FA. LNCS, vol. 4530, pp. 194–203. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Wiedermann, B., Cook, W.R.: Extracting queries by static analysis of transparent persistence. In: Felleisen, M. (ed.) Proceedings of the 34th ACM SIGPLAN-SIGACT Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages (POPL 2007), pp. 199–210. ACM, New York (2007)Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Wyk, E.V., Krishnan, L., Bodin, D., Schwerdfeger, A.: Attribute grammar-based language extensions for Java. In: Ernst, E. (ed.) ECOOP 2007. LNCS, vol. 4609, pp. 575–599. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eelco Visser
    • 1
  1. 1.Software Engineering Research GroupDelft University of TechnologyNetherlands

Personalised recommendations