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High-Refractive-Index Waveguide Platforms for Chemical and Biosensing

  • Katrin Schmitt
  • Christian HoffmannEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Springer Series on Chemical Sensors and Biosensors book series (SSSENSORS, volume 7)

Abstract

The field of chemical and biosensors based on waveguide technology is rapidly growing, with new developments focusing on higher sensitivity and stability. This key demand is prompting researchers and developers to explore new materials for waveguide sensor systems, with especially high-refractive-index materials as promising components. This chapter gives an overview of different sensor platforms implementing high-refractive-index waveguide materials, with applications in both research and commercial sensor systems. This is accompanied by a theoretical background of waveguide-sensing principles, especially focusing on the key steps to high sensor sensitivities.

Keywords

Evanescent field Label-free Fluorescence Biosensor 

Abbreviations

CCD

Charge coupled device

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

MZI

Mach-Zehnder-Interferometer

RNA

Ribonucleic acid

Symbols

c

Speed of light in vacuum

d

Thickness, diameter, distance

deff

Effective thickness of the waveguide

\( \vec D \)

Electric displacement

\( \vec E \)

Electric field

\( \vec H \)

Magnetic field

i

Imaginary unit

k

Wave vector

L

Interaction length

m

Mode number

n

Refractive index

na

Refractive index of the ambient medium

nad

Refractive index of the surface adlayer

neff

Effective refractive index of the waveguide

nw, nc, ns

Refractive index of waveguide, cover and substrate

P

Light intensity

Pin

Input power

Pout

Output power

tad

Thickness of the surface adlayer

TE

Transverse electric

TM

Transverse magnetic

Δz

Penetration depth

α

Coupling angle

βm

Propagation constant of the mode m

ΔΓ

Mass coverage

ε

Permittivity

\( {\overline \varphi}_{cr} \)

Critical angle

Δϕ

Phase shift

κ

Diffraction order

λ

Wavelength

λ0

Wavelength in vacuum

Λ

Grating period

μ

Permeability

τr

Phase shift upon reflection

ω

Angular frequency

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fraunhofer Institute for Physical Measurement TechniquesFreiburgGermany
  2. 2.Institute for Bioprocessing and Analytical Measurement TechniquesHeilbad HeiligenstadtGermany

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