Reflective Analysis of the Syntax and Semantics of the i* Framework

  • Jennifer Horkoff
  • Golnaz Elahi
  • Samer Abdulhadi
  • Eric Yu
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5232)


Conceptual modeling notations are often designed without the benefit of empirical input. Reflective analysis of modeling languages can help find the gap between the intended design of the language and its use in practice. In this paper, we study instances of the i* goal and agent-oriented Framework to analyze differences between the core i* syntax developed at the University of Toronto and existing variations. We have surveyed 15 student assignments and 15 academic papers and presentations in order to capture and analyze the most common i* syntax variations. Through this analysis we offer insights into i* syntax and suggestions to improve the framework and increase consistency between models.


Goal Orientation i* Modeling Framework Language Variation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Yu, E.: Modeling Strategic Relationships for Process Reengineering. Ph.D thesis, Department of Computer Science, University of Toronto, Canada (1995)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Yu, E.: Towards Modelling and Reasoning Support for Early-Phase Requirements Engineering. In: Proc. of the 3rd Requirements Engineering Conf., RE 1997, pp. 226–235 (1997)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Castro, J., Kolp, M., Mylopoulos, J.: A requirements-driven development methodology. In: Dittrich, K.R., Geppert, A., Norrie, M.C. (eds.) CAiSE 2001. LNCS, vol. 2068, pp. 108–123. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jones, S., Maiden, N.A.M.: RESCUE: An integrated method for specifying requirements for complex socio-technical systems. In: Mate, J.L., Silva, A. (eds.) Requirements Engineering for Sociotechnical Systems. Idea Group Inc. (2005)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Moody, D.: What Makes a Good Diagram? Improving the Cognitive Effectiveness of Diagrams in IS Development. In: Proc. of the 15th Int. Conf. in Information Systems Development, ISD 2006, pp. 481–492 (2006)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gurr, C., Tourlas, K.: Towards the principled design of software engineering diagrams. In: Proc. of the 22nd Int. Con. on Software Engineering, ICSE 2000, pp. 509–518 (2000)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lange, C.F.J., Chaudron, M.R.V.: An Empirical Assessment of Completeness in UML Designs. In: Proc. of the Int. Conf. on Empirical Assessment in Software Engineering, EASE 2004, pp. 111–119 (2004)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lange, C.F.J., Chaudron, M.R.V.: Effects of defects in UML models: an experimental investigation. In: Proc. of the 28th Int. Con. on Software Engineering, ICSE 2006, pp. 401–411 (2006)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Webster, I., Amaral, J., Cysneiros Filho, L.M.: A Survey of Good Practices and Misuses for Modelling with i* Framework. In: Proc. of the VIII Workshop on Requirements Engineering, WER 2005, pp. 148–160 (2005)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Horkoff, J.: Using i* Models for Evaluation, Masters Thesis, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science (2006)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
  12. 12.
    Chung, L., Nixon, B.A., Yu, E., Mylopoulos, J.: Non-Functional Requirements in Software Engineering. Kluwer Academic Publishing, Dordrecht (2000)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Liu, L., Yu, E., Mylopoulos, J.: Security and Privacy Requirements Analysis within a Social Setting. In: IEEE Joint Int. Conf. on Requirements Engineering, RE 2003, pp. 151–161 (2003)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gans, G., Jarke, M., Lakemeyer, G., Schmitz, D.: Deliberation in a metadata-based modeling and simulation environment for inter-organizational networks. In: Eder, J., Missikoff, M. (eds.) CAiSE 2003. LNCS, vol. 2681, pp. 587–607. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Samavi, R., Yu, E., Topaloglou, T.: Strategic reasoning about business models: a conceptual modeling approach. Journal of Information Systems and E-Business Management (2008)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Grau, G., Franch, X., Maiden, N.A.M.: A goal based round-trip method for system development. In: Proc. of the 11th Int. Workshop on Requirements Engineering: Foundation For Software Quality, REFSQ, pp. 71–86 (2005)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Raadt, V.D., Gordijn, J., Yu, E.: Exploring Web Services from a Business Value Perspective. In: IEEE Joint Int. Conf. on Requirements Engineering, RE 2005, pp. 53–62 (2005)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lespérance, y., Lapouchnian, A.: On Using i* for Modeling Autonomy, Reasoning, and Planning in Adaptive Systems. In: Presentation in istar 2008 Workshop (2008)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Oliveira, A.P.A., Prado Leite, J.S.C., Cysneiros, L.M.: AGFL - Agent Goals from Lexicon Eliciting Multi-Agent Systems Intentionality. In: star 2008 Workshop (2008)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kolp, M., Faulkner, S.: The SKwyRL Approach: Social/Spiral Design based on i* and Tropos. In: istar 2005 Workshop (2005)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Maiden, N.A.M., Kamdar, N., Bush, D.: Analyzing I* System Models for Dependability Properties: The Uberlingen Accident. In: Proc. of the 12th Int. Workshop on Requirements Engineering: Foundation For Software Quality, REFSQ (2006)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Elahi, G., Yu, E.: A Goal Oriented Approach for Modeling and Analyzing Security Trade-Offs. In: Parent, C., Schewe, K.-D., Storey, V.C., Thalheim, B. (eds.) ER 2007. LNCS, vol. 4801, pp. 375–390. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Strohmaier, M., Yu, E., Horkoff, J., Aranda, J., Easterbrook, S.M.: Analyzing Knowledge Transfer Effectiveness -An Agent-Oriented Modeling Approach. In: Proc. of 40th Hawaii International Conference on Systems Science, HICSS 2007, p. 188 (2007)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yu, E., Strohmaier, M., Deng, X.: Exploring Intentional Modeling and Analysis for Enterprise Architecture. In: Proc. of the EDOC 2006 Conf. Workshop on Trends in Enterprise Architecture Research, TEAR 2006 (2006)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mazón, J., Trujillo, J., Serrano, M., Piattini, M.: Designing data warehouses: From business requirement analysis to multidimensional modeling. In: Proc. of Int. Workshop on Requirements Engineering for Business Needs and IT Alignment (2005)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Arzdorf, T., Gans, G., Jarke, M., Lakemeyer, G., Schmitz, D.: SNet: A Modeling and Simulation Environment for Inter-Organizational Networks. In: istar 2005 Workshop (2005)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kolp, M., Do, T.T., Faulkner, S.: Multi-Agent Architecture for E-Business Systems: An Organizational Perspective. In: Proc. of 23rd Int. Conf. on Information Systems (2002)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jennifer Horkoff
    • 1
  • Golnaz Elahi
    • 1
  • Samer Abdulhadi
    • 2
  • Eric Yu
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of TorontoCanada
  2. 2.Faculty of InformationUniversity of TorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations