On the Run-Time Dynamics of a Peer-to-Peer Evolutionary Algorithm

  • Juan L. J. Laredo
  • Agoston E. Eiben
  • Maarten van Steen
  • Juan J. Merelo
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5199)


In this paper we propose an improvement on a fully distributed Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) based on autonomous selection. Autonomous selection means that individuals decide on their own state of reproduction and survival without any central control, using instead estimations about the global population state for decision making. The population size varies at run-time as a consequence of such a decentralized reproduction and death of individuals. In order to keep it stable, we propose a self-adjusting mechanism which has been shown successful in three different search landscapes. Key are the estimations about fitness and size of the population as provided by a gossiping algorithm. Such an algorithm requires several rounds to collect the information while the individuals have to wait for synchronization. As an improvement, we propose a completely asynchronous EA which does not need waiting times. The results show that our approach outperforms quantitatively the execution time of the synchronous version.


Evolutionary Algorithm Tournament Selection Initial Population Size Counting Algorithm Idle Cycle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Anderson, D.P., Cobb, J., Korpela, E., Lebofsky, M., Werthimer, D.: SETI@home: an experiment in public-resource computing. Commun. ACM 45(11), 56–61 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arenas, M.G., Collet, P., Eiben, A.E., Jelasity, M., Merelo, J.J., Paechter, B., Preuss, M., Schoenauer, M.: A framework for distributed evolutionary algorithms. In: Guervós, J.M., Adamidis, P., Beyer, H.G., Fernández-Villacañas, J. L., Schwefel, H.P. (eds.) PPSN 2002. LNCS, vol. 2439, pp. 665–675. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Eiben, A.E., Schoenauer, M., van Krevelen, D.W.F., Hobbelman, M.C., ten Hagen, M.A., van het Schip, R.C.: Autonomous selection in evolutionary algorithms. In: GECCO 2007, pp. 1506–1506. ACM Press, New York (2007)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Giacobini, M., Preuss, M., Tomassini, M.: Effects of scale-free and small-world topologies on binary coded self-adaptive CEA. In: Gottlieb, J., Raidl, G.R. (eds.) EvoCOP 2006. LNCS, vol. 3906, pp. 85–96. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jelasity, M., Montresor, A., Babaoglu, O.: Gossip-based aggregation in large dynamic networks. ACM Trans. Comput. Syst. 23(3), 219–252 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jelasity, M., van Steen, M.: Large-scale newscast computing on the Internet. Technical Report IR-503, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Computer Science, Amsterdam, The Netherlands October (2002)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jesi, G.P.: Peersim, a peer-to-peer simulator,
  8. 8.
    Laredo, J.L.J., Eiben, E.A., Schoenauer, M., Castillo, P.A., Mora, A.M., Merelo, J.J.: Exploring selection mechanisms for an agent-based distributed evolutionary algorithm. In: GECCO 2007, pp. 2801–2808. ACM Press, New York (2007)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Laredo, J.L.J., Valdivieso, P.A.C., Paechter, B., Mora, A.M., Alfaro-Cid, E., Esparcia-Alcázar, A., Guervós, J.J.M.: Empirical validation of a gossiping communication mechanism for parallel EAs. In: Giacobini, M. (ed.) EvoWorkshops 2007. LNCS, vol. 4448, pp. 129–136. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Suganthan, P.N., Hansen, N., Liang, J.J., Deb, K., Chen, Y.P., Auger, A., Tiwari, S.: Problem Definitions and Evaluation Criteria for the CEC 2005 Special Session on Real-Parameter Optimization. Technical report, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (2005)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tomassini, M.: Spatially Structured Evolutionary Algorithms: Artificial Evolution in Space and Time (Natural Computing Series). Springer, New York (2005)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wickramasinghe, W.R.M.U.K., van Steen, M., Eiben, A.E.: Peer-to-Peer evolutionary algorithms with adaptive autonomous selection. In: GECCO 2007, pp. 1460–1467. ACM Press, New York (2007)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Juan L. J. Laredo
    • 1
  • Agoston E. Eiben
    • 2
  • Maarten van Steen
    • 2
  • Juan J. Merelo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Architecture and Computer TechnologyUniversity of GranadaSpain
  2. 2.Department of Computer ScienceVrije Universiteit AmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations