Advertisement

Resilience Markers for Safer Systems and Organisations

  • Jonathan Back
  • Dominic Furniss
  • Michael Hildebrandt
  • Ann Blandford
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5219)

Abstract

If computer systems are to be designed to foster resilient performance it is important to be able to identify contributors to resilience. The emerging practice of Resilience Engineering has identified that people are still a primary source of resilience, and that the design of distributed systems should provide ways of helping people and organisations to cope with complexity. Although resilience has been identified as a desired property, researchers and practitioners do not have a clear understanding of what manifestations of resilience look like. This paper discusses some examples of strategies that people can adopt that improve the resilience of a system. Critically, analysis reveals that the generation of these strategies is only possible if the system facilitates them. As an example, this paper discusses practices, such as reflection, that are known to encourage resilient behavior in people. Reflection allows systems to better prepare for oncoming demands. We show that contributors to the practice of reflection manifest themselves at different levels of abstraction: from individual strategies to practices in, for example, control room environments. The analysis of interaction at these levels enables resilient properties of a system to be ‘seen’, so that systems can be designed to explicitly support them. We then present an analysis of resilience at an organisational level within the nuclear domain. This highlights some of the challenges facing the Resilience Engineering approach and the need for using a collective language to articulate knowledge of resilient practices across domains.

Keywords

Human error distributed cognition control rooms nuclear domain 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Hollnagel, E., Woods, D.D.: Joint cognitive systems: Foundations of cognitive systems engineering. Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton (2005)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dekker, S.: Failure to adapt or adaptations that fail: contrasting models on procedures and safety. Applied Ergonomics 34(3), 233–238 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Perrow, C.: Normal Accidents: Living with High-Risk Technologies. Basic Books (1999)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Back, J., Furniss, D., Blandford, A.: Cognitive Resilience: Reflection-in-action and on-action. In: Proc. Resilience Workshop, pp. 1–6. Linköping University (2007)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Masino, G., Zamarian, M.: Information technology artefacts as structuring devices in organizations. Interacting with Computers 15(5), 693–707 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Back, J., Blandford, A., Furniss, D., Curzon, P.: Avoiding Slips. Submitted for journal publication (2008)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wright, P.: The harassed decision maker: Time pressures, distractions, and the use of evidence. Journal of Applied Psychology 59, 555–561 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Klein, G., Orasanu, J., Calderwood, R., Zsambok, C.E.: Decision Making in Action: Models and Methods. Ablex Publishing Co., Norwood (1993)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kirsh, D.: Adapting the environment instead of oneself. Adaptive Behaviour 4(3/4), 415–452 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Spillers, F., Loewus-Deitch, D.: Temporal attributes of shared artifacts in collaborative task environments. In: Proc: HCI 2003 workshop on temporal aspects of tasks (2003)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Furniss, D., Blandford, A.: Understanding Emergency Medical Dispatch in terms of Distributed Cognition: a case study. Ergonomics Journal 49(12/13), 1174–1203 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bardram, J.E.: Temporal coordination: On time and coordination of collaborative activities at a surgical department. Computer Suppoted Cooperated Work 9, 157–187 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nathanael, D., Marmas, N.: The interplay between work practices and prescription: a key issue for organisational resilience. In: Proc. 2nd Resilience Eng. Symp., pp. 229–237 (2006)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hollnagel, E., Woods, D.D.: Epilogue: Resilience engineering precepts. In: Hollnagel, E., Woods, D.D., Leveson, N. (eds.) Resilience engineering: Concepts and precepts, pp. 347–358. Ashgate (2006)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Byrne, M.D., Bovair, S.: A working memory model of a common procedural error. Cognitive Science 21, 31–61 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Back, J., Cheng, W.L., Dann, R., Curzon, P., Blandford, A.: Does being motivated to avoid procedural errors influence their systematicity? In: Proc. HCI 2006, pp. 151–157 (2006)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ertmer, P.A., Newby, T.J.: The expert learner: Strategic, self-regulated, and reflective. Instructional Science 24, 1–24 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Blandford, A., Furniss, D.: DiCoT: A methodology for applying Distributed Cognition to the team working systems. In: Gilroy, S.W., Harrison, M.D. (eds.) DSV-IS 2005. LNCS, vol. 3941, pp. 26–38. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hollan, J., Hutchins, E., Kirsh, D.: Distributed cognition: toward a new foundation for human-computer interaction. ACM Trans. Comput.-Hum. Interact. 7(2), 174–196 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Perin, C.: Shouldering Risks. Princeton University Press, Princeton (2004)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ujita, H., Kubota, R., Ikeda, K.: Development and Verification of a Plant Navigation System. Cognition, Technology & Work 3, 22–32 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Halden Work Report 844. The International HRA empirical study – Pilot phase report. OECD Halden Reactor Project. Halden, Norway (2008)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cook, R.I., Woods, D.D.: Operating at the Sharp End: The Complexity of Human Error. In: Bogner, M.S. (ed.) Human Error in Medicine, pp. 255–310. Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah (1994)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rochlin, G.: Safe operation as a social construct. Ergonomics 42, 1549–1560 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jonathan Back
    • 1
  • Dominic Furniss
    • 1
  • Michael Hildebrandt
    • 2
  • Ann Blandford
    • 1
  1. 1.University College London Interaction Centre 
  2. 2.Industrial Psychology DivisionOECD Halden Reactor Project 

Personalised recommendations