Automated Web Services Composition with the Event Calculus

  • Onur Aydın
  • Nihan Kesim Cicekli
  • Ilyas Cicekli
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4995)


As the web services proliferate and complicate it is becoming an overwhelming job to manually prepare the web service compositions which describe the communication and integration between web services. This paper analyzes the usage of the Event Calculus, which is one of the logical action-effect definition languages, for the automated preparation and execution of web service compositions. In this context, abductive planning capabilities of the Event Calculus are utilized. It is shown that composite process definitions in OWL-S can be translated into Event Calculus axioms so that planning with generic process definitions is possible within this framework.


Event Calculus Web Service Composition Planning 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Aydin, O.: Automated web service composition with the event calculus, M.S. Thesis, Dept. of Computer Engineering, METU, Ankara (2005)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Berners-Lee, T., Hendler, J., Lassila, O.: The Semantic Web. Scientific American Magazine (May 2001)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cicekli, N.K., Cicekli, I.: Formalizing the specification and execution of workflows using the event calculus. Information Sciences (to appear) Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chen, L., Yang, X.: Applying AI Planning to Semantic Web Services for workflow Generation. In: Proc. of the 1st Intl. Conf. on Semantics, Knowledge and Grid, SKG 2005 (2005)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jacinto, J.D.: REACTIVE PASCAL and the event calculus: A platform to program reactive, rational agents. In: Proc. of the Workshop at FAPR 1995: Reasoning about Actions and Planning in Complex Environments (1996)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kowalski, R.A., Sergot, M.J.: A Logic-Based Calculus of Events. New Generation Computing 4(1), 67–95 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kuter, U., Sirin, E., Nau, D.S., Parsia, B., Hendler, J.: Information gathering during planning for web service composition. In: McIlraith, S.A., Plexousakis, D., van Harmelen, F. (eds.) ISWC 2004. LNCS, vol. 3298, pp. 335–349. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Levesque, H., Reiter, R., Lesperance, Y., Lin, F., Scherl, R.: GOLOG: A Logic programming language for dynamic domains. Journal of Logic Programming 31(1-3), 59–84 (1997)zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Marjanovic, O.: Managing the normative context of composite e-services. In: ICWS-Europe, pp. 24–36 (2003)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    McDermott, D.: Estimated-regression planning for interactions with Web Services. In: Sixth International Conference on AI Planning and Scheduling. AAAI Press, Menlo Park (2002)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    McDermott, D.V., Dou, D., Qi, P.: PDDAML, An Automatic Translator Between PDDL and DAML,
  12. 12.
    McIlraith, S.A., Son, T.: Adapting Golog for composition of semantic Web services. In: Proceedings of Eight International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning, pp. 482–493 (2002)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    McIlraith, S.A., Son, T., Zeng, H.: Semantic Web services. IEEE Intelligent Systems, March/April (2001)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Medjahed, B., Bouguettaya, A., Elmagarmid, A.K.: Composing web services on the semantic web. The VLDB Journal 12(4), 333–351 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Oh, S.G., Lee, D., Kumara, S.R.T.: A comparative Illustration of AI planning-based web services composition. ACM SIGecom Exchanges 5, 1–10 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    OWL-S: Semantic Markup for Web Services Version 1.1, November 2004. Publish of Semantics Web Services Language (SWSL) Committee (Last Accessed: 17 September 2005),
  17. 17.
    Peer, J.: Web Service Composition as AI Planning- a Survey*, Technical report, Univ. of St. Gallen, Switzerland (2005),
  18. 18.
    Rao, J., Su, X.: A Survey of Automated Web Service Composition Methods. In: Proceedings of First International Workshop on Semantic Web Services and Web Process Composition (July 2004)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rouached, M., Perrin, O., Godart, C.: Towards formal verification of web service composition. In: Dustdar, S., Fiadeiro, J.L., Sheth, A.P. (eds.) BPM 2006. LNCS, vol. 4102, pp. 257–273. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shanahan, M.P.: The Event Calculus Explained. In: Veloso, M.M., Wooldridge, M.J. (eds.) Artificial Intelligence Today. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 1600, pp. 409–430. Springer, Heidelberg (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shanahan, M.P.: An abductive event calculus planner. Journal of Logic Programming 44(1-3), 207–240 (2000)zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sirin, E., Hendler, J., Parsia, B.: Semi-automatic Composition of Web Services using Semantic Descriptions. In: Web Services: Modeling, Architecture and Infrastructure workshop in conjunction with ICEIS 2003 (2002)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Stathis, K., Lekeas, G., Kloukinas, C.: Competence checking for the global e-service society using games. In: O’Hare, G., O’Grady, M., Dikinelli, O., Ricci, A. (eds.) Proceedings of Engineering Societies in the Agents World, ESAW 2006 (2006)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wu, D., Sirin, E., Parsia, B., Hendler, J., Nau, D.: Automatic web services composition using SHOP2. In: Proceedings of Planning for Web Services Workshop, ICAPS 2003 (June 2003)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yolum, P., Singh, M.: Reasoning About Commitments in the Event Calculus: An Approach for Specifying and Executing Protocols. Annals of Mathematics and AI 42(1-3) (2004)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Onur Aydın
    • 1
  • Nihan Kesim Cicekli
    • 2
  • Ilyas Cicekli
    • 3
  1. 1.Microsoft CorporationSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Computer Engineering, METUAnkaraTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Computer EngineeringBilkent UniversityAnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations