Advertisement

Online Privacy: Measuring Individuals’ Concerns

  • Maria Moloney
  • Frank Bannister
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5183)

Abstract

Existing research within the Information Systems domain has shown that there is a substantial level of online privacy concern among the online community. However it is not clear from an extensive review of the literature that the complete set of online privacy concerns has yet been identified or whether the concerns that have been investigated, by way of surveys, have adequate theoretical foundations. This paper considers the work of two prominent privacy theorists Westin and Altman, and from their privacy theories infers a set of online privacy concerns. These inferred privacy concerns are then compared with a list of online privacy concerns drawn from the empirical literature. This comparison highlights the similarities and inconsistencies between both sets of concerns. From the findings, an online privacy model is devised which attempts to outline the components of the concept of online privacy and their interdependencies. By representing the concept of online privacy in the form of a model, areas where concern arises can be highlighted more easily and as a result measures can be taken to reduce such concern.

Keywords

Information Systems Internet Privacy Trust Data Security 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Ackerman, M.S., Cranor, L.F., Reagle, J.: Privacy in E-Commerce: Examining User Scenarios and Privacy Preferences. In: The 1st ACM conference on Electronic commerce Denver, Colorado, United States. ACM Press, New York (1999Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Agre, P.E., Rotenberg., M.: Technology and Privacy: The New Landscape. MIT Press, London (1997)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Altman, I.: The Environment and Social Behavior, Monteray, California. Brooks/Cole (1975)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Altman, I., Chemers, M.: Culture and Environment, Monteray, California. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company (1980)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Altman, I., Taylor, D.: Social Penetration: The Development and Dissolution of Interpersonal Relationships, London, Holt. Rinehart and Winston (1973)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ambrose, P.J., Johnson, G.L.: A Trust Model of Buying Behavior in Electronic Retailing. The Association for Information Systems, Baltimore (1998)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Barber, B.: The Logic and Limits of Trust, New Brunswick, New Jersey. Rutgers University Press (1983)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Boritz, E., No, W.G., Sundarraj, R.P.: Internet Privacy: Framework, Review and Opportunities for Future Research (2006), http://ssrn.com/abstract=908647
  9. 9.
    Castañeda, J.A., Montoro, F.J.: The effect of Internet general privacy concern on customer behavior. Electronic Commerce Research 7, 117–141 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Covello, V.T.: Trust and Credibility in Risk Communication. Health Environment Digest 6, 1–4 (1992)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dhillon, G.S., Moores, T.T.: Internet Privacy: Interpreting Key Issues. Information Resources Management Journal 14, 33–37 (2001)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dinev, T., Hart, P.: Internet Privacy Concerns and their Antecedents - Measurement Validity and a Regression Model. Behaviour and information Technology 23, 413–422 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Drury, I.: Oops! MoD lost THREE laptops, not just one, admits minister. The Daily Mail (2008), http://www.dailymail.co.uk/pages/live/articles/news/news.html?in_article_id=509629&in_page_id=1770&in_page_id=1770&expand=true edGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fried, C.: Privacy: A Rational Context. In: Erman, M.D., Williams, M.B., Gutierrez, C. (eds.) Computers, Ethics & Society, New York. Oxford University Press, Oxford (1990)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gefen, D.: E-Commerce: The role of familiarity and trust. The International Journal of Management Science 28, 725–737 (2000)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    George, J.F.: The Theory of Planned Behavior and Internet Purchasing Internet Research: Electronic Networking Applications and Policy, vol. 14, pp. 198–212 (2004)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gershaw, D.: Line on Life: AIDS and Teenagers (1989), http://virgil.azwestern.edu/~dag/lol/AIDSTeens.html
  18. 18.
    Goodwin, C.: A Conceptualization of Motives to Seek Privacy for Nondeviant Consumption. Journal of Consumer Psychology 1, 261–284 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Interactive, H.: Privacy On and Off the Internet: What Consumers Want. Harris Interactive Inc., Hackensack, New Jersey, Privacy & American Business (2002)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Heffernan, B., Kennedy, E.: Alert as 170,000 blood donor files are stolen The Irish Independant, Dublin (2008), http://www.independent.ie/national-news/alert-as-170000-blood-donor-files-are-stolen-1294079.html
  21. 21.
    Hui, K.L., Teo, H.H., Lee, S.Y.T.: The Value of Privacy Assurance: An Exploratory Field Experiment. MIS Quarterly 31, 19–33 (2007)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kim, K.K., Prabhakar, B.: Initial Trust and the Adoption of B2C e-Commerce: The Case of Internet Banking. Database for Advances in Information Systems Control Journal 35, 50–65 (2004)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lee, M.K.O., Turban, E.: A Trust Model for Consumer Internet Shopping. International Journal of Electronic Commerce 6, 75–91 (2001)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Levenson, H.: Multidimensional Locus of Control in Psychiatric Patients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 41, 397–404 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Liu, C., Marchewka, J.T., Lu, J., Yu, C.-S.: Beyond Concern - A Privacy-Trust-Behavioral Intention Model of Electronic Commerce. Information & Management 42, 289–304 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Margulis, S.T.: On the Status and Contribution of Westin’s and Altman’s Theories of Privacy. The Journal of Social Issues 59, 411–429 (2003a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Margulis, S.T.: Privacy as a Social Issue and Behavioral Concept. The Journal of Social Issues 59, 243–262 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Margulis, S.T., Pope, J.A., Lowen, A.: The Harris-Westin’s Index of General Concern About Privacy: An Attempted Conceptual Replication, Seidman College of Business. Grand Valley State University, Grand Rapids, Michigan (2006)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
  30. 30.
    Marshall, N.: Dimensions of Privacy Preferences. Multivariate Behavioral. Research 9, 255–271 (1974)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mcknight, D.H., Chervany, N.L.: What Trust Means in E-Commerce Customer Relationships: An Interdisciplinary Conceptual Typology. International Journal of Electronic Commerce 6, 35–59 (2001)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mcknight, D.H., Cummings, L.L., Chervany, N.L.: Initial Trust Formation in New Organisational Relationships. Academy of Management Review 23, 473–490 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Milberg, S.J., Burke, S.J., Smith, H.J., Kallman, E.A.: Values, Personal Information Privacy, and Regulatory Approaches. Communications of the ACM 38, 65–74 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Milne, G.R., Boza, M.E.: Trust and Concern in Consumers’ Perceptions of Marketing Information Management Practices. Journal of Interactive Marketing 13, 5–24 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Moor, J.H.: Towards a theory of privacy in the information age. ACM SIGCAS Computers and Society 27, 27–32 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Nissenbaum, H.: Protecting Privacy in an Information Age: The Problem of Privacy in Public. Law and Philosophy 17, 559–596 (1998)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Parent, W.A.: A New definition of Privacy for the Law. Law and Philosophy 2, 305–338 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Phelps, J., Nowak, G., Ferrell, E.: Privacy Concerns and Consumer Willingness to Provide Personal Information. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing 19, 27–42 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Phelps, J.E., D’souza, G., Nowak, G.J.: Antecedents and Consequences of Consumer Privacy Concerns: An Empirical Investigation. Journal of Interactive Marketing 15, 2–17 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Privacy Rights Clearinghouse, A Chronology of Data Breaches. Privacy Rights Clearinghouse, San Diego (2005)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rotenburg, M.: What Larry Doesn’t Get: Fair Information Practices and the Architecture of Privacy. Stanford Technology Law Review (2000)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Rotter, J.B.: Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcements. Psychological Monographs 80, 1–28 (1966)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Shankar, V., Urban, G.L., Sultan, F.: Online Trust: A Stakeholder Perspective, concepts, implications and Future Directions. Journal of Strategic information Systems 11, 325–344 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Smith, H.J., Milberg, S.J., Burke, S.J.: Information Privacy: Measuring Individuals’ Concerns about Organizational Practices. MIS Quarterly 20, 167–196 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Taviani, H.T.: Philosophical Theories of Privacy: Implications for An Adequate Online Privacy Policy. Metaphysics 38 (2007)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    The Council of Europe, The European Convention on Human Rights. C364 (1950)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    The Council of Europe, The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. C364 (2000)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    United Nations, Universal Declaration of Human Rights. General Assembly resolution (1948)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Webster, P., O’Neill, S., Blakely, R.: 25 million exposed to risk of ID fraud. Times Online, London (2007), http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article2910705.ece
  50. 50.
    Westin, A.F.: Privacy and Freedom. The Bodley Head Ltd., London (1970)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Westin, A.F.: Social and Political Dimensions of Privacy. The Journal of Social Issues 59, 431–453 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Zhao, S.: Do Internet Users have more Social Ties? A Call for Differentiated Analyses of Internet Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 11 (2006)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Moloney
    • 1
  • Frank Bannister
    • 1
  1. 1.Trinity College Dublin 

Personalised recommendations