Robust Recognition of Reading Activity in Transit Using Wearable Electrooculography

  • Andreas Bulling
  • Jamie A. Ward
  • Hans Gellersen
  • Gerhard Tröster
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5013)


In this work we analyse the eye movements of people in transit in an everyday environment using a wearable electrooculographic (EOG) system. We compare three approaches for continuous recognition of reading activities: a string matching algorithm which exploits typical characteristics of reading signals, such as saccades and fixations; and two variants of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) - mixed Gaussian and discrete. The recognition algorithms are evaluated in an experiment performed with eight subjects reading freely chosen text without pictures while sitting at a desk, standing, walking indoors and outdoors, and riding a tram. A total dataset of roughly 6 hours was collected with reading activity accounting for about half of the time. We were able to detect reading activities over all subjects with a top recognition rate of 80.2% (71.0% recall, 11.6% false positives) using string matching. We show that EOG is a potentially robust technique for reading recognition across a number of typical daily situations.


Hide Markov Model Activity Recognition String Match Reading Activity Baseline Drift 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andreas Bulling
    • 1
  • Jamie A. Ward
    • 2
  • Hans Gellersen
    • 2
  • Gerhard Tröster
    • 1
  1. 1.Wearable Computing LaboratoryETH ZurichSwitzerland
  2. 2.Embedded Interactive Systems GroupLancaster UniversityUK

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