Advertisement

Differentiating Successful and Failed Invaders: Species Pools and the Importance of Defining Vector, Source and Recipient Regions

  • A. Whitman Miller
  • Gregory M. Ruiz
Chapter
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 204)

Attempts to understand the dynamics of biological invasions continue to abound in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Identifying the biological attributes of successful invaders, or what makes a good invader, are among the most tantalizing questions still to be answered, especially in marine ecosystems. Numerous studies across a range of taxonomic groups have examined species characteristics to determine whether certain species level factors strongly differentiate successful from failed invaders (see Rejmánek and Richardson 1996; Williamson and Fitter 1996; Reichard and Hamilton 1997; Miller 2000; Kolar and Lodge 2002; Prinzing et al. 2002; Cassey et al. 2004a,b; Miller et al. 2007). At the heart of these analyses is the comparison of successful and failed species pools, which are defined in various ways with specific consequences for the inferences that can result.

When trying to understand the effects of species characteristics on invasion outcome, most studies compare physiological tolerances, life history characteristics, and behavior of successful and failed invaders. Although it is certainly valid to compare any two groups to understand differences in their respective attributes, only a subset of such comparisons can answer questions about the invasion process. More specifically, invasions have a specific context and result from interactions among source regions, recipient regions, and transfer mechanisms (vectors). Thus, comparing invaders from one source region to non-invaders from a different source region may tell us little about attributes of successful invaders, because the latter group may not share the same opportunities for transfer and invasion, thereby introducing additional variables and confounding interpretation.

Keywords

Source Region Great Lake Ballast Water Invasion Success Species Pool 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Baker HG (1965) Characteristics and modes of origin of weeds. In: Baker HG, Stebbins GL (eds) The genetics of colonizing species. Academic Press, New York, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  2. Carlton JT (1979) History, biogeography, and ecology of the introduced marine and estuarine invertebrates of the Pacific coast of North America. PhD dissertation. University of California, Davis. 904 ppGoogle Scholar
  3. Carlton JT (1996) Pattern, process, and prediction in marine invasion ecology. Biol Conserv 78:97–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carlton JT, Ruiz GM (2005) Vector science and vector management in bioinvasion ecology: conceptual frameworks. In: Mooney HA, Mack RN, McNeely JA et al. (eds) Invasive alien species, a new synthesis. Island Press, Covelo, California, USA, pp 36–58Google Scholar
  5. Cassey P, Blackburn TM, Russell GJ, Jones KE, Lockwood JL (2004a) Influence on transport and the establishment of exotic bird species: an analysis of the parrots (Psittaciformes) of the world. Global Change Biol 10:417–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cassey P, Blackburn TM, Jones KE, Lockwood JL (2004b) Mistakes in the analysis of exotic species establishment: source pool designation and correlates of introduction success among parrots (Aves: Psittaciformes) of the world. J Biogeogr 31:277–284Google Scholar
  7. Cohen AN, Carlton JT (1995) Nonindigenous aquatic species in a United States estuary: a case study of the biological invasions of the San Francisco Bay and Delta. A report for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. and the National Sea Grant College Program Connecticut Sea Grant. 272 ppGoogle Scholar
  8. Daehler CT, Strong DR (1993) Prediction and biological invasion. Trends Ecol Evol 10:380 Duncan RP, Blackburn TM, Veltman CJ (1999) Determinants of geographical range sizes: a test using introduced New Zealand Birds. J Anim Ecol 68:963–975Google Scholar
  9. Duncan RP, Bomford M, Forsyth DM, Conibear L (2001) High predictability in introduction outcomes and the geographical range size of introduced Australian birds: a role for climate. J Anim Ecol 70:621–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Elton CS (1958) The ecology of invasions of animals and plants. Methuen, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  11. Goodwin BJ, McAllister AJ, Fahrig L (1999) Predicting invasiveness of plant species based on biological information. Conserv Biol 13:422–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jeschke JM, Strayer DL (2005) Invasion success of vertebrates in Europe and North America. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:7198–7202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kolar CS, Lodge DM (2001) Progress in invasion biology: predicting invaders. Trends Ecol Evol 16:199–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kolar CS, Lodge DM (2002) Ecological predictions and risk assessment for alien fishes in North America. Science 298:1233–1236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Marchetti MP, Moyle PB, Levine R (2004) Invasive species profiling? Exploring the characteristics of non-native fishes across invasion stages in California. Freshwater Biol 49:646–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Miller AW (2000) Assessing the importance of biological attributes for invasion success: Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) introductions and associated molluscan invasions of Pacific and Atlantic coastal systems. D.Env. dissertation. University of California, Los Angeles 209 ppGoogle Scholar
  17. Miller AW, Hewitt CL, Ruiz GM (2002) Invasion success: does size really matter? Ecol Lett 5:159–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Miller AW, Ruiz GM, Minton MS, Ambrose RF (2007) Differentiating successful and failed molluscan invaders in estuarine ecosystems. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 332:41–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Prinzing A, Durka W, Klotz S, Brandl R (2002) Which species become aliens? Evol Ecol Res 4:385–405Google Scholar
  20. Pyšek P, Richardson DM, Williamson M (2004) Predicting and explaining plant invasions through analysis of source area floras: some critical considerations. Divers Distrib 10:179–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Reichard SH, Hamilton CW (1997) Predicting invasions of woody plants introduced to North America. Conserv Biol 11:193–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rejmánek M, Richardson DM (1996) What attributes make some plant species more invasive? Ecology 77:1655–1661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Richardson DM, Rejmánek M (2004) Conifers as invasive aliens: a global survey and predictive framework. Divers Distrib 10:321–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Richardson DM, Pyšek P, Rejmánek M, Barbour MG, Panetta FD, West CJ (2000) Naturalization and invasion of alien plants: concepts and definitions. Divers Distrib 6:93–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Roy K, Jablonski D, Valentine JW (2001) Climate change, species range limits and body size in marine bivalves. Ecol Lett 4:366–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ruesink JL (2005) Global analysis of factors affecting the outcome of freshwater fish introductions. Conserv Biol 19:1883–1893Google Scholar
  27. Simberloff D (1989) Which insect introductions succeed and which fail? In: Drake JA, Mooney HA, di Castri F, Groves RH, Kruger FJ, Rejmánek M, Williamson M (eds) Biological invasions: a global perspective. . Wiley, New York, pp 61–75Google Scholar
  28. Veltman CJ, Nee S, Crawley MJ (1996) Correlates of introduction success in exotic New Zealand birds. Am Nat 147:542–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Verling E, Ruiz GM, Smith LD, Galil B, Miller AW, Murphy KR (2005) Supply-side invasion ecology: characterizing propagule pressure in coastal ecosystems. Proc R S 272:1249–1257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Williamson MH, Fitter A (1996) The characters of successful invaders. Biol Conserv 78:163–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Whitman Miller
    • 1
  • Gregory M. Ruiz
    • 1
  1. 1.Smithsonian Environmental Research CenterEdgewaterUSA

Personalised recommendations