The Vessel as a Vector – Biofouling, Ballast Water and Sediments

  • Chad L. Hewitt
  • Stephan Gollasch
  • Dan Minchin
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 204)

Human-mediated marine bioinvasions have altered the way we view the marine environment — virtually all regions of the global oceans have experienced the introduction of marine species (e.g., Carlton 1979; Coles et al. 1999; Cranfield et al. 1998; Cohen and Carlton 1998; Hewitt et al. 1999, 2004; Orensanz et al. 2002; Leppäkoski et al. 2002; Lewis et al. 2003; Castilla et al. 2005; Wolff 2005; Gollasch and Nehring 2006; Minchin 2006), placing marine and coastal resources under increased threat. Humans have almost certainly transported marine species since early attempts to voyage by sea. These ancient transport vectors were slow, and for the most part restricted to small spatial scales. The beginning of significant exploration and subsequent expansion by Europeans (post 1500 AD) has resulted in the transport of many thousands of species across all world oceans (Crosby 1986; diCastri 1989; Carlton 2001).

The transport of species by human vectors was recognized by early workers (Ostenfeld 1908; Elton 1958), but it is only in the last few decades that significant progress on identifying patterns and processes has been made (e.g., Carlton 1985, 1996, 2001; Ruiz et al. 2000; Hewitt et al. 2004; Castilla et al. 2005; Minchin 2006). Numerous transport vectors have been identified and described (Carlton 2001; Chap. 5, Minchin et al.); however the majority of species appear to have been associated with vessel movements, either as exploratory, military, commercial or recreational vessels (e.g., Carlton 1985, 2001; Cohen and Carlton 1998; Hewitt et al. 1999; Gollasch et al. 2002, Minchin and Gollasch 2003).


Ballast Water International Maritime Organization Antifouling Paint Transport Vector Invasive Aquatic Species 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. AFS (2001) International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-Fouling Systems on Ships. International Maritime Organization, London, United Kingdom;, accessed 30 January 2006Google Scholar
  2. Bax NJ (1999) Eradicating a dreissenid from Australia. Dreissena! 10:1–5Google Scholar
  3. Bettelhäuser F, Ullrich P (1993) Die Suche nach dem sozial- und umweltverträglichen Schiff - Die ersten Schritte. Arbeitskreis andere nützliche Objekte der Bremer Vulkan Werft, 1–92Google Scholar
  4. BWM (2005) International Convention on the Control and Management of Ship's Ballast Water and Sediments. International Maritime Organization, London, United Kingdom; www.imo. org, accessed 30 January 2006Google Scholar
  5. Carlton JT (1979) History, biogeography and ecology of the introduced marine and estuarine invertebrates of the Pacific Coast of North America. PhD Dissertation. University of California, Davis, California, USAGoogle Scholar
  6. Carlton JT (1985) Transoceanic and interoceanic dispersal of coastal marine organisms: the biology of ballast water. Ocean Mar Biol Ann Rev 23:313–371Google Scholar
  7. Carlton JT (1996) Pattern, process, and prediction in marine invasion ecology. Biol Cons 78:97–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carlton JT (2001) Introduced species in U.S. coastal waters: environmental impacts and management priorities. Pew Oceans Commission, Virginia, USAGoogle Scholar
  9. Carlton JT, Geller JB (1993) Ecological roulette: the global transport of nonindigenous marine organisms. Science 261:78–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Castilla JC, Uribe M, Bahamonde N, Clarke M, Desqueyroux-Faúndez R, Kong I, Moyano H, Rozbaczylo N, Santilices B, Valdovinos C, Zavala P (2005) Down under the southeastern Pacific: marine non-indigenous species in Chile. Biol Inv 7:213–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Çinar ME (2006) Serpulid species (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) from the Levantine coast of Turkey (eastern Mediterranean), with special emphasis on alien species. Aquat Invas 4:223–240Google Scholar
  12. Cohen AN, Carlton JT (1995) Biological study: non-indigenous aquatic species in a United States estuary: a case study of the biological invasions of the San Francisco bay and delta. US Fisheries and Wildlife and National Sea Grant College Program Report, NTIS Number PB96-166525, Springfield, Virginia, USA, 273 ppGoogle Scholar
  13. Cohen AN, Carlton JT (1998) Accelerating invasion rate in a highly invaded estuary. Science 279:555–558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Coles SL, DeFelice RC, Eldredge LG, Carlton JT (1999) Historical and recent introductions of non-indigenous marine species into Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands. Mar Biol 135:147–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Coutts ADM (1999) Hull fouling as a modern vector for marine biological invasions: investigation of merchant vessels visiting northern Tasmania. Masters Thesis, Australian Maritime College, Launceston, Tasmania, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  16. Cranfield HJ, Gordon DP, Willan RC, Marshall BA, Battershill CN, Francis MP, Nelson WA, Glasby CJ, Read GB (1998) Adventive marine species in New Zealand. NIWA Technical Report 34. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Wellington, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  17. Crosby AW (1986) Ecological imperialism: the biological expansion of Europe, 900–1900. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  18. di Castri F (1989) History of biological invasions with specieal emphasis on the Old World. In: Drake JA, Mooney HA, di Castri F, Groves RH, Kruger FJ, Rejmánek M, Williamson M (eds) Biological invasions: a global perspective. SCOPE 37. Wiley, New York, pp 1–30Google Scholar
  19. Drake LA, Choi K-H, Ruiz GM, Dobbs FC (2001) Global re-distribution of bacterioplankton and virioplankton communities. Biol Inv 3:193–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Elton CS (1958) The ecology of invasions by animals and plants. Methuen, London, United KingdomGoogle Scholar
  21. Fent K (1996) Ecotoxicology of organotin compounds. Crit Rev Toxicol 26:1–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fofonoff PW, Ruiz GM, Steves B, Carlton JT (2003) In Ships or on ships? Mechanisms of transfer and invasion for non-native species to the coasts of North America. In: Ruiz GM, Carlton JT (eds) Invasive species: vectors and management strategies. Island Press, Washington, pp 152–182Google Scholar
  23. Gollasch S (2001) German National Report. In: Report of the ICES Working Group on Introductions and Transfers of Marine Organism (WGITMO). Barcelona Meeting, pp 38–43Google Scholar
  24. Gollasch S (2002a) The importance of ship hull fouling as a vector of species introductions into the North Sea. Biofouling 18(2):105–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gollasch S (2002b) Ballast water management in the north-east Atlantic. In: Tjallingii F (ed) Report to aid decision making on ballast water in the Oslo-Paris Commission (OSPAR). Biological Diversity Committee. North Sea Directorate, the Netherlands, p 48Google Scholar
  26. Gollasch S, David M, Dragsund E, Hewitt CL, Fukuyo Y (2007) Critical review of the IMO International Convention on the Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments. Harmful Algae 6: 585–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gollasch S, Lenz J, Dammer M, Andres HG (2000) Survival of tropical ballast water organisms during a cruise from the Indian Ocean to the North Sea. J Plankton Res 22:923–937CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gollasch S, MacDonald E, Belson S, Botnen H, Christensen JT, Hamer JP, Houvenaghel G, Jelmert A, Lucas I, Masson D, McCollin T, Olenin S, Persson A, Wallentinus I, Wetsteyn LPMJ, Wittling T (2002) Life in ballast tanks. In: Leppäkoski E, Gollasch S, Olenin S (eds) Invasive aquatic species of Europe distribution, impact and management. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, pp 217–231Google Scholar
  29. Gollasch S, Nehring S (2006) National checklist for aquatic alien species in Germany. Aquat Invas 1(4):245–269Google Scholar
  30. Gollasch S, Kerckhof F (in prep) National checklist of introduced aquatic alien species for BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  31. Hay C, Dodgshun T (1997) Ecosystem transplant? The case of the Yefim Gorbenko. Seafood N Z 13–15Google Scholar
  32. Hewitt CL, Campbell ML, Thresher RE, Martin RB (eds) (1999) The introduced species of Port Phillip Bay, Victoria. Centre for Research on Introduced Marine Pests Technical Report No. 20. CSIRO Marine Research, HobartGoogle Scholar
  33. Hewitt CL, Campbell ML, Thresher RE, Martin RB, Boyd S, Cohen BF, Currie DR, Gomon MF, Keogh MJ, Lewis JA, Lockett MM, Mays N, McArthur MA, O'Hara TD, Poore GCB, Ross DJ, Storey MJ, Watson JE, Wilson RS (2004) Introduced and cryptogenic species in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia. Mar Biol 144:183–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hewitt CL, Campbell ML, Schaffelke B (2007) Introductions of marine macroalgae — accidental transfer pathways and mechanisms. Bot Mar 50:326–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hülsmann N, Galil BS (2002) Protists — a dominant component of the ballast — transported biota. In: Leppäkoski E, Gollasch S, Olenin S (eds) Invasive aquatic species of Europe: distribution, impact and management. Kluwer, Dordrecht, the Netherlands, pp 20–26Google Scholar
  36. Jensen K, Knudsen J (2005) A summary of alien marine invertebrates in Danish waters. Oceanolog Hydrobiol Stud 34(Suppl 1):137–162Google Scholar
  37. Lenz J, Andres H-G, Gollasch S, Dammer M (2000) Einschleppung fremder Organismen in Nord- und Ostsee: Untersuchungen zum ökologischen Gefahrenpotential durch den Schiffsverkehr. UBA Project Water: 102 04 250, Umweltbundesamt, Berlin, Texte 5Google Scholar
  38. Leppäkoski E, Gollasch S, Olenin S (eds) (2002) Invasive aquatic species of Europe distribution, impact and management. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  39. Lewis PN, Hewitt CL, Riddle M, McMinn A (2003) Marine introductions in the Southern Ocean: an unrecognised hazard to biodiversity. Mar Pollut Bull 46:213–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Marquard O (1926) Die Chinesische Wollhandkrabbe, Eriocheir sinensis Milne- Edwards, einneuer Bewohner deutscher Flüsse. Fischerei 24:417–433Google Scholar
  41. Minchin D (2006) The transport and the spread of living aquatic species. In: Davenport J, Davenport JL (eds) The ecology of transportation: managing mobility for the environment. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 77–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Minchin D (2007) Aquaculture and transport in a changing environment: overlap and links in the spread of alien biota. Mar Pollut Bull 55(7/9):302–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Minchin D, Bishop J, Cook E (in prep) Alien and cryptogenic species in brackish and marine regions of BritainGoogle Scholar
  44. Minchin D, Gollasch S (2003) Fouling and ships' hulls: how changing circumstances and spawning events may result in the spread of exotic species. Biofouling 19:111–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Minchin D, Gollasch S, Wallentinus I (2005) Vector pathways and the spread of exotic species in the sea. ICES Coop Res Rep 271Google Scholar
  46. Minchin D, Floerl O, Savini D, Occhipinti-Ambrogi A (2006) Small craft and the spread of exotic species. In: Davenport J, Davenport JL (eds) The ecology of transportation: managing mobility for the environment. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 99–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Nagabhushanam R, Sarojini R (1997) An overview of Indian research efforts on marine wood-boring and fouling organisms. In: Nagabhushanam R, Thompson M-F (eds) Fouling organisms of the Indian Ocean, biology and control technology. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, p 538Google Scholar
  48. Nehring S (2001) After the TBT era: alternative antifouling paints and their ecological risks. Senckenbergiana Marit 31:341–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Olesen G (1982) Antifouling paint — a source of pollution. Schiff Hafen 34(7):18–19Google Scholar
  50. Oresanz JM, Schwindt E, Pastorino G, Bortolus A, Casas G, Darrigran G, Elías R, López Gappa JJ, Obenat S, Pascual M, Penchaszadeh P, Piriz ML, Scarabino F, Spivak ED, Vallarino EA (2002) No longer the pristine confines of the world ocean: a survey of exotic marine species in the southwestern Atlantic. Biol Inv 4:115–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ostenfeld CH (1908) On the immigration of Biddulphia sinensis Grev. and its occurrence in the North Sea during 1903–1907. Meddelelser Fra Kommissionen Fur Danmarks Fiskeri-og Havundersogelser. Serie Plankton 1, No 6Google Scholar
  52. Peters N (1933) B. Lebenskundlicher Teil. In: Peters N, Panning, A (eds.) Die chinesische Wollhandkrabbe (Eriocheir sinensis H. MILNE-EDWARDS) in Deutschland. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Leipzig, pp 59–156Google Scholar
  53. Ruiz GM, Fofonoff PW, Carlton JT, Wonham MJ, Hines AH (2000) Invasion of coastal marine communities in North America: apparent patterns, processes, and biases. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 31:481–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Taylor A, Rigby G, Gollasch S, Voigt M, Hallegraeff G, McCollin T, Jelmert A (2002) Preventive treatment and control techniques for ballast water. In: Leppäkoski E, Gollasch S, Olenin S (eds) Invasive aquatic species of Europe: distribution, impacts and management. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, p 583Google Scholar
  55. Valentine PC, Carman MR, Blackwood DS, Heffron EJ (2007) Ecological observations on the colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. in a New England tide pool habitat. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 342:109–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Willan RC, Russell BC, Murfet NB, Moore KL, McEnnulty FR, Horner SK, Hewitt CL, Dally GM,Campbell ML, Bourke ST (2000) Outbreak of Mytilopsis sallei (Recluz, 1849) (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae) in Australia. Molluscan Res 20(2):25–30Google Scholar
  57. Williams RJ, Griffiths FB, Van der Wal EJ, Kelly J (1988) Cargo vessel ballast water as a vector for the transport of non-indigenous marine species. Est Coast Shelf Sci 26:409–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wolff WJ (2005) Non-indigenous marine and estuarine species in The Netherlands. Zool Meded 79-1:1–116Google Scholar
  59. Zibrowius H (1994) Introduced invertebrates: examples of success and nuisance in the European Atlantic and Mediterranean. In: Boudouresque CF, Briand F, Nolan C (eds) Introduced species in European coastal waters. European Commission, Luxembourg, pp 44–49Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chad L. Hewitt
    • 1
  • Stephan Gollasch
    • 2
  • Dan Minchin
    • 3
  1. 1.Australian Maritime CollegeLauncestonAustralia
  2. 2.GoConsultGrosse Brunnenstr.Germany
  3. 3.Marine Organism InvestigationsBallinaIreland

Personalised recommendations