Natural and Climate Change Mediated Invasions

  • Steve I. LonhartEmail author
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 204)

Species distributions are constantly in flux. Biological and physical factors continually influence the rates of range expansions and contractions, altering the distribution of species in space and through time (MacArthur 1972; Brown 1995; Brown et al. 1996). Ranges expand as individuals colonize new areas and contract as populations become locally extinct. Understanding how organisms respond to environmental changes and describing the underlying mechanisms are key research components in the fields of ecology and biogeography. Knowing where populations occur—and where they are absent—provides insights into the ecological and physical factors that regulate patterns of density and distribution (see also Chap. 2, Carlton).

Historically, biological responses were due to natural processes and often occurred over long (geological) time scales. More recently, anthropogenic (i.e. human-mediated) processes have played an increasingly important role in driving patterns of density and distribution. In this chapter I will present biological invasions in the context of geographic range shifts, explore range shifts due to natural, anthropogenic, and artificial processes, and consider how climate change is already affecting species distributions.


Geographic Range Pacific Decadal Oscillation Biological Invasion Range Expansion Regime Shift 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Barry JP, Baxter CH, Sagarin RD, Gilman SE (1995) Climate-related, long-term faunal changes in a California rocky intertidal community. Science 267:672–675PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beaugrand G, Reid PC (2003) Long-term changes in phytoplankton, zooplankton and salmon related to climate. Global Change Biol 9:801–817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beaugrand G, Reid PC, Ibañez F, Lindley JA, Edwards M (2002) Reorganization of North Atlantic marine copepod biodiversity and climate. Science 296:1692–1694PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bertsch H, Campillo OA, Arreola JL (2000) New distributional records of opisthobranchs from the Punta Eugenia region of the Baja California peninsula: a report based on 1997–1998 CONABIO-sponsored expeditions. Festivus 32:99–104Google Scholar
  5. Brown JH (1995) Macroecology. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  6. Brown JH, Kodric-Brown A (1977) Turnover rates in insular biogeography: effect of immigration on extinction. Ecology 58:445–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brown JH, Stevens GC, Kaufman DM (1996) The geographic range: size, shape, boundaries and internal structure. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 27:597–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carlton JT (2000) Global change and biological invasions in the oceans. In:Mooney HA, Hobbs RJ (eds) Invasive species in a changing world. Island Press, Washington D.C., pp 31–53Google Scholar
  9. Chavez FP, Strutton PG, Friederich GE, Feely RA, Feldman GC, Foley DG, McPhaden ML (1999) Biological and chemical response of the equatorial Pacific Ocean to the 1997–98 El Niño. Science 286:2126–2131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chavez FP, Ryan J, Lluch-Cota SE, Niquen M (2003) From anchovies to sardines and back: multidecadal change in the Pacific Ocean. Science 299:217–221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cohen AN, Carlton JT (1998) Accelerating invasion rate in a highly invaded estuary. Science 279:555–558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Culver CS, Kuris AM (2000) The apparent eradication of a locally established introduced marine pest. Biol Invas 2:245–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Edwards MS, Hernández-Carmona G (2005) Delayed recovery of the giant kelp near its southern range limit in the North Pacific following El Niño. Mar Biol 147:273–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Engle JM, Richards DV (2001) New and unusual marine invertebrates discovered at the California Channel Islands during the 1997–1998 El Niño. Bull South Calif Acad Sci 100:186–198Google Scholar
  15. Gaston KJ (1994) Measuring geographic range sizes. Ecography 17:198–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gaston KJ (1996) Species-range-size distributions: patterns, mechanisms and implications. Trend Ecol Evol 11:197–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gaston KJ (2003) The structure and dynamics of geographic ranges. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Gilman S (2005) A test of Brown's principle in the intertidal limpet Collisella scabra (Gould, 1846). J Biogeogr 32:1583–1589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Glynn PW (1961) The first recorded mass stranding of pelagic red crabs, Pleuroncodes planipes, at Monterey Bay, California, since 1859, with notes on their biology. Calif Fish Game 47:97–101Google Scholar
  20. Graham RW, Grimm EC (1990) Effects of global climate change on the patterns of terrestrial biological communities. Trend Ecol Evol 5:289–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Harley CDG, Hughes AR, Hultgren KM, Miner BG, Sorte CJB, Thornber CS, Rodriguez LF, Tomanek L, Williams SL (2006) The impacts of climate change in coastal marine systems. Ecol Lett 9:228–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hays GC, Richardson AJ, Robinson C (2005) Climate change and marine plankton. Trend Ecol Evol 20:337–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Helmuth B, Mieszkowska N, Moore P, Hawkins SJ (2006) Living on the edge of two changing worlds: forecasting the responses of rocky intertidal ecosystems to climate change. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 37:373–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Holbrook SJ, Schmitt RJ, Stephens JS (1997) Changes in an assemblage of temperate reef fishes associated with a climate shift. Ecol Appl 7:1299–1310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hubbs CL, Schultz LP (1929) The northward occurrence of southern forms of marine life along the Pacific Coast in 1926. Calif Fish Game 15:234–241Google Scholar
  26. Hughes L (2000) Biological consequences of global warming: is the signal already apparent? Trend Ecol Evol 15:56–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. IPCC (2007) Climate and biodiversity. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change technical paperGoogle Scholar
  28. Kolar CS, Lodge DM (2002) Ecological predictions and risk assessment for alien fishes in North America. Science 298:1233–1236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lavaniegos BE, Ohman MD (2003) Long-term changes in pelagic tunicate of the California Current. Deep-Sea Res II 50:2473–2498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lonhart SI, Tupen JW (2001) New range records of 12 marine invertebrates: the role of El Niño and other mechanisms in southern and central California. Bull South Calif Acad Sci 100:238–248Google Scholar
  31. MacArthur RH (1972) Geographical ecology: patterns in the distribution of species. Princeton University Press, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  32. Mantua NJ, Hare SR (2002) The Pacific decadal oscillation. J Oceanogr 58:35–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. McCarty JP (2001) Ecological consequences of recent climate change. Conserv Biol 15:320–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. McGowan JA, Cayan DR, Dorman LM (1998) Climate-ocean variability and ecosystem response in the northeast Pacific. Science 281:210–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. McGowan JA, Bograd SJ, Lynn RJ, Miller AJ (2003) The biological response to the 1977 regime shift in the California Current. Deep-Sea Res II 50:2567–2582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. McKinney ML, Lockwood JL (1999) Biotic homogenization: a few winners replacing many losers in the next mass extinction. Trend Ecol Evol 14:450–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Moerman DE, Estabrook GF (2006) The botanist effect: counties with maximal species richness tend to be home to universities and botanists. J Biogeogr 33:1969–1974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Parmesan C (2006) Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 37:637–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Perry AL, Low PJ, Ellis JR, Reynolds JD (2005) Climate change and distribution shifts in marine fishes. Science 308:1912–1915PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rahel FJ (2000) Homogenization of fish faunas across the United States. Science 288:854–856PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Richards DV, Engle JM (2001) New and unusual reef fish discovered at the California Channel Islands during the 1997–1998 El Niño. Bull South Calif Acad Sci 100:175–185Google Scholar
  42. Rilov G, Benayahu Y, Gasith A (2004) Prolonged lag in a population outbreak of an invasive mussel: a shifting-habitat model. Biol Invas 6:347–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Root TL, Schneider SH (2002) Climate change: overview and implications for wildlife. In: Schneider SH, Root TL (eds) Wildlife responses to climate change: North American case studies. Island Press, Washington D.C., pp 1–56Google Scholar
  44. Roy K, Jablonski D, Valentine JW (1995) Thermally anomalous assemblages revisited: patterns in the extraprovincial latitudinal range shifts of Pleistocene marine mollusks. Geology 23:1071–1074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Roy K, Valentine JW, Jablonski D, Kidwell SM (1996) Scales of climatic variability and time averaging in Pleistocene biotas: implications for ecology and evolution. Trend Ecol Evol 11:458–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ruiz GM, Fofonoff PW, Carlton JT, Wonham MJ, Hines AH (2000) Invasion of coastal marine communities in North America: apparent patterns, processes, and biases. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 31:481–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sagarin R (2002) Historical studies of species' responses to climate change: promises and pratfalls. In: Schneider SH, Root TL (eds) Wildlife responses to climate change: North American case studies. Island Press, Washington D.C., pp 127–163Google Scholar
  48. Sagarin RD, Gaines SD (2002a) The ‘abundant centre’ distribution: to what extent is it a biogeo-graphical rule? Ecol Lett 5:137–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sagarin RD, Gaines SD (2002b) Geographical abundance distributions of coastal invertebrates: using one-dimensional ranges to test biogeographic hypotheses. J Biogeogr 29:985–997CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sagarin RD, Barry JP, Gilman SE, Baxter CH (1999) Climate-related change in an intertidal community over short and long time scales. Ecol Monogr 69:465–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Schiel DR, Steinbeck JR, Foster MS (2004) Ten years of induced ocean warming causes comprehensive changes in marine benthic communities. Ecology 85:1833–1839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Semmens BX, Buhle ER, Salomon AK, Pattengill-Semmens CV (2004) A hotspot of non-native marine fishes: evidence for the aquarium trade as an invasion pathway. Mar Ecol Progr Ser 266:239–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Southward AJ, Hawkins SJ, Burrows MT (1995) Seventy years' observations of changes in distribution and abundance of zooplankton and intertidal organisms in the Western English Channel in relation to rising sea temperature. J Therm Biol 20:127–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Strauss S Y, Lau JA, Carroll SP (2006) Evolutionary responses of natives to introduced species: what do introductions tell us about natural communities? Ecol Lett 9:357–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Valentine JW, Jablonski D (1993) Fossil communities: compositional variation at many time scales. In: Ricklefs RE, Schluter D (eds) Species diversity in ecological communities: historical and geographical perspectives. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 341–348Google Scholar
  56. Vermeij GJ, Palmer AR, Lindberg DR (1990) Range limits and dispersal of mollusks in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Veliger 33:346–354Google Scholar
  57. Wasson K, Zabin CJ, Bedinger L, Diaz MC, Pearse JS (2001) Biological invasions of estuaries without international shipping: the importance of intraregional transport. Biol Conserv 102:143–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Monterey Bay National Marine SanctuaryNOAA and Institute of Marine Sciences, University of CaliforniaSantz CruzUSA

Personalised recommendations