Advertisement

Introduced Aquatic Species of the North Sea Coasts and Adjacent Brackish Waters

  • Stephan Gollasch
  • Deniz Haydar
  • Dan Minchin
  • Wim J. Wolff
  • Karsten Reise
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 204)

Introduced aquatic species have received more attention in north-western Europe following the summaries from the German North Sea coast (Gollasch 1996; Nehring and Leuchs 1999), Britain (and Ireland) (Eno et al. 1997; Minchin and Eno 2002), Norway (Hopkins 2002) and a more general account for the North Sea (Reise et al. 1999). Since then, several inventories have appeared: for the German coast (Nehring 2005), the Dutch coast (Wolff 2005) and the Danish coast (Jensen and Knudsen, 2005). In this account we review, summarise and update all those previous accounts. We have also included NIS (=non-indigenous introduced species) which were known from the North Sea but most probably are extinct in this area today, and species that have been recorded, but for which we have no proof of self-sustaining populations.

For the purpose of this account:
  • The North Sea is defined from a line between Dover and the Belgian border in the south-west to a parallel line from the Shetland Islands to Norway in the north, and also includes the Skagerrak in the east (modified after North Sea Task Force, 1993). The boundary between the North and Baltic Seas, as defined by the Helsinki Commission (www.helcom.fi), is the parallel of the Skaw in the Skagerrak at 57°44.43′N (Fig. 29.1).

  • We define marine and brackish-water species as those aquatic species which do not complete their entire life cycle in freshwater (modified after ICES 2005). Marine species are those having their main distribution in salinities higher than 18 psu; brackish-water species have their main distribution in salinities between 1 and 18 psu.

  • Introduced species (= non-indigenous, exotic or alien species, NIS) are species transported intentionally or accidentally by a human-mediated vector into habitats outside their native range. Note that secondary introductions may be transported by human-mediated vectors or by natural means (ICES 2005).

  • A vector is any living or non-living carrier that transports living organisms intentionally or unintentionally (ICES 2005).

Keywords

Ballast Water Pacific Oyster Invasive Aquatic Species Chinese Mitten Crab Nonindigenous Species 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anger K (1990) Der Lebenszyklus der Chinesischen Wollhandkrabbe (Eriocheir sinensis) in Norddeutschland: Gegenwärtiger Stand des Wissens und neue Untersuchungen. Seevögel 11(2):32–37Google Scholar
  2. Beare DJ, Burns F, Greig A, Jones EG, Peach K, Kienzle M, Mckenzie E, Reid DG (2004) Long-term increases in prevalence of North Sea fishes having southern biogeographic affinities. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 284:269–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berge J, Johnsen G, Nilsen F, Gulliksen B, Slagstad D (2005) Ocean temperature oscillations enable reappearance of blue mussels in Svalbard after a 1000 year absence. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 303:167–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blackbourn D (2006) The conquest of nature. WW Norton, Company, New York, London, 466 ppGoogle Scholar
  5. Blanchard M (1997) Spread of the slipper limpet Crepidula fornicata (L. 1758) in Europe. Current state and consequences. Sci Mar 61(Suppl 2):109–118Google Scholar
  6. Boettger CR (1933) Die Ausbreitung der Wollhandkrabbe in Europa. Sitzungberichte Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde, Berlin 1933, pp 399–415Google Scholar
  7. Carlton JT (1996) Biological invasions and cryptogenic species. Ecology 77:1653–1655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carlton JT (2003) Community assembly and historical biogeography in the North Atlantic Ocean: the potential role of human-mediated dispersal vectors. Hydrobiologia 503:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carlton JT, Cohen AN (2003) Episodic global dispersal in shallow water marine organisms; the case history of the European shore crabs Carcinus maenas and C. aestuarii. J Biogeog 30:1809–1820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chavaud L, Jean F, Ragueneau O, Thozeau G (2000) Long-term variation of the Bay of Brest ecosystem: benthic-pelagic coupling revisited. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 200:35–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Clark PFC, Rainbow PS, Robbins RS, Smith B, Yeomans WE, Thomas M, Dobson G (1998) The alien Chinese mitten-crab, Eriocheir sinensis (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura), in the Thames catchment. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 78:1215–1221Google Scholar
  12. Cohen AN, Carlton JT (1995) Biological study: non-indigenous aquatic species in a United States estuary: a case study of the biological invasions of the San Francisco Bay and Delta. US Fish and Wildlife and National Sea Grant College Program Report PB96-166525, Springfield, Virginia, USA, pp 273Google Scholar
  13. Cole HA (1952) The American slipper limpet on Cornish oyster beds. Fisheries Investigation Ser 2 17(7):1–13Google Scholar
  14. de Lafontaine Y (2005) First record of the Chinese mitten crab (i) in the St. Lawrence River, Canada. J Great Lakes Res 31:367–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Deslous-Paoli J-M (1985) Crepidula fornicata L. (Gastropode) dans la bassin de Marennes-Oleron: structure, dynamique et production d'une population. Oceanol Acta 8:453–460Google Scholar
  16. Diederich S, Nehls G, van Beusekom JEE, Reise K (2005) Introduced Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) in the northern Wadden Sea: invasion accelerated by warm summers? Helgol Mar Res 59:97–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Eno NC, Clark RA, Sanderson WG (1997) Non-native marine species in British waters: a review and directory. JNCC, PeterboroughGoogle Scholar
  18. Franke H-D, Gutow L (2004) Long-term changes in the macrozoobenthos around the rocky island of Helgoland (German Bight, North Sea). Helgol Mar Res 58:303–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gollasch S (1996) Untersuchungen des Arteintrages durch den internationalen Schiffsverkehr unter besonderer Berücksichtigung nichtheimischer Arten. Diss., Univ Hamburg; Verlag Dr. Kovac, Hamburg, pp 314Google Scholar
  20. Gollasch S, Rosenthal H (2006) The Kiel Canal. In: Gollasch S, Galil BS, Cohen A (eds) Bridging divides. Maritime canals as invasion corridors. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp 5–90Google Scholar
  21. Hooft PC (1580) Nederlands HistorienGoogle Scholar
  22. Hopkins CCE (2002). Introduced marine organisms in Norwegian waters, including Svalbard. In: Leppäkoski E, Gollasch S, Olenin S (eds) Invasive aquatic species of Europe. Distribution, impacts and management. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 240–252Google Scholar
  23. Hoppe KN (2002) Teredo navalis — the cryptogenic shipworm. In: Leppäkoski E, Gollasch S, Olenin S (eds) Invasive aquatic species of Europe. Distribution, impacts and management. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 116–119Google Scholar
  24. ICES (2005) ICES Code of practice on the introductions and transfers of marine organisms 2005, pp 30Google Scholar
  25. Ichiki M, Suzumiya H, Hayakawa K, Imai JI, Nawa Y (1989) Two cases of Paragonimiasis west-ermani with pleural effusion in young girls living in the southern part of Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan. Jpn J Parasitol 38(6):392–395Google Scholar
  26. Jensen KR, Knudsen J (2005) A summary of alien marine benthic invertebrates in Danish waters. Oceanol Hydrobiol Stud 34(Suppl 1):137–162Google Scholar
  27. Kerckhof F, Vink RJ, Nieweg DC, Post JJN 2006. The veined whelk Rapana venosa has reached the North Sea. Aquat Invas 1:35–37Google Scholar
  28. Kerckhof F, Haelters J & Gollasch S (2007) Alien species in the marine and brackish ecosystem: the situation in Belgian waters. Aquatic Invasions 2(3), 243–257Google Scholar
  29. Korringa P (1942) Crepidula fornicata's invasion in Europe. Basteria 7:12–23Google Scholar
  30. Kühl H (1977) Mercierella enigmatica (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) an der deutschen Nordseeküste. Veröffentlichungen Institut für Meeresforschung Bremerhaven, 16:99–104Google Scholar
  31. Maggs CA, Stegenga H (1999) Red algal exotics on North Sea coasts. Helgol Meeresunters 52:243–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Martinet JF (1778) Katechismus der Natuur. Derde deel. Johannes Allart, Amsterdam, 387 ppGoogle Scholar
  33. Michaelis H, Reise K (1994) Langfristige Veränderungen des Zoobenthos im Wattenmeer. In: Lozán JL, Rachor E, Reise K, Westernhagen, H v, Lenz W (eds), Warnsignale aus dem Wattenmeer. Bd. 2, Blackwell Wissenschafts-Verlag, Berlin, 106–116Google Scholar
  34. Minchin D, Eno C (2002) Exotics of coastal and inland waters of Ireland and Britain. In: Leppäkoski E, Gollasch S, Olenin S (eds) Invasive aquatic species of Europe: distribution, impact and management. Kluwer, pp 267–275Google Scholar
  35. Minchin D, McGrath D, Duggan CB (1995) The slipper limpet Crepidula fornicata (L.) in Irish waters, with a review of its occurrence in the north-east Atlantic. J Conchol London 35:247–254Google Scholar
  36. Moll F (1914) Die Bohrmuschel (Genus Teredo Linné). Naturwissenschaftliche Zeitschrift für Forst- und Landwirtschaft 12:505–564Google Scholar
  37. Montaudouin X de, Audemard C, Labourg P-J ( 1999) Does the slipper limpet (Crepidula forni-cata, L.) impair oyster growth and zoobenthos biodiversity? A revisited hypothesis. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 135:105–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Montaudouin X de, Labarraque D, Giraud K, Banchelet G (2001) Why does the introduced gastropod Crepidula fornicata fail to invade Arcachon Bay (France)? J Mar Biol Assoc U K 81:97–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Nehls G, Diederich S, Thieltges DW, Strasser M (2006) Wadden Sea mussel beds invaded by oysters and slipper limpets: competition or climate control? Helgol Mar Biol 60:135–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Nehring S (2005) International shipping — a risk for aquatic biodiversity in Germany. In: Nentwig W, Bacher S, Cock MJW, Dietz H, Gigon A, Wittenberg R (eds) Biological invasions – from ecology to control. NEOBIOTA 6:125–143Google Scholar
  41. Nehring S, Leuchs H (1999) Neozoa (Makrozoobenthos) an der deutschen Nordseeküste — Eine Übersicht. Bundesanstalt für Gewässerkunde Koblenz, Bericht BfG-1200, pp 131Google Scholar
  42. Nepszy SJ, Leach JH (1973) First records of the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, (Crustacea: Brachyura) from North America. J Fish Res Board Can 30(12):1909–1910Google Scholar
  43. Ojaveer H, Gollasch S, Jaanus A, Kotta J, Laine AO, Minde A, Normant M, Panov V (2007). Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis (H. Milne-Edwards, 1853) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Varunidae) population in the Baltic Sea – a supply-side invader? Biol Invas 9:409–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ostenfeld CH (1908) On the immigration of Biddulphia sinensis Grev. and its occurrence in the North Sea during 1903–1907. Medd Komm Havunders Ser Plankton 1(6):1–46Google Scholar
  45. Panning A (1938) The Chinese mitten crab. Smithsonian Rep 361–375Google Scholar
  46. Panning A (1952) Die chinesische Wollhandkrabbe. Die neue Brehm-Bücherei 70:1–46Google Scholar
  47. Perry AL, Low PJ, Reynolds JD (2005) Climate change and distribution shifts in marine fishes. Science 308:1912–1915PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Peters N (1933) B. Lebenskundlicher Teil. In: Peters N, Panning A (eds) Die chinesische Wollhandkrabbe (Eriocheir sinensis H. MILNE-EDWARDS) in Deutschland. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Leipzig, pp 59–156Google Scholar
  49. Petersen KS, Rasmussen JB, Heinemeier J, Rud N (1992) Clams before Columbus? Nature 359:679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Quiniou F, Blanchard M (1987) Etat de la proliferation de la crepidule (Crepidula fornicata L.) dans le secteur de Granville (Golfe Normano-Breton — 1985). Haliotus 16:513–529Google Scholar
  51. Reise K (1991) Ökologische Erforschung des Wattenmeeres. Biologie der Meere, Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg, 68–79Google Scholar
  52. Reise K, Gollasch S, Wolff WJ (1999) Introduced marine species of the North Sea coasts. Helgol Meeresunters 52:219–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Reise K, Dankers N, Essink K (2005) Introduced species. In: Essink K, Dettmann C, Farke H, Laursen K, Lüerßen G, Marencic H, Wiersinga W (eds) Wadden Sea Quality Status Report 2004. Wadden Sea Ecosystem No.19. Common Wadden Sea Secretariat, Wilhelmshaven, Germany, pp 155–161Google Scholar
  54. Reise K, Olenin S, Thieltges DW (2006) Are aliens threatening European aquatic coastal ecosystems? Helgol Mar Res 60:77–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Riera P, Stal L, Nieuwenhuize J (2002) δ13C versus δ13N of co-occurring molluscs within a community dominated by Crassostrea gigas and Crepidula fornicata (Oosterschelde, The Netherlands). Mar Ecol Prog Ser 240:291–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rudnick DA, Halat KM, Resh VH (2000) Distribution, ecology and potential impacts of the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) in San Francisco Bay. University of California, Berkeley, Water Resources Center, Contribution 26, pp 74Google Scholar
  57. Schnakenbeck W (1924) Ueber das Auftreten chinesischer Krabben in der Unterelbe. Schriften für Süßwasser- und Meereskunde, 5Google Scholar
  58. Stachowicz JJ, Terwin JR, Whitlach RB, Osman RW (2002) Linking climate change and biological invasions: ocean warming facilitates nonindigenous species invasions. Proc Natl Acad Sci 99:15497–15500PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Strasser M (1999) Mya arenaria — an ancient invader of the North Sea coast. Helgol Meeresunters 52:309–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sukopp H, Brande A (1984) Beiträge zur Landschaftsgeschichte des Gebietes um den Tegeler See. Sitzungsber Ges Naturforsch Freunde Berlin 24:198–214Google Scholar
  61. Thieltges DW (2005a) Impact of an invader: epizootic American slipper limpet Crepidula forni-cata reduces survival and growth in European mussels. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 286:13–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Thieltges DW (2005b) Benefit from an invader: American slipper limpet Crepidula fornicata reduces star fish predation on basibiont European mussels. Hydrobiologia 541:241–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Thieltges DW, Strasser M, Reise K (2003) The American slipper limpet Crepidula fornicata (L.) in the northern Wadden Sea 70 years after its introduction. Helgol Mar Res 57:27–33Google Scholar
  64. Thieltges DW, Strasser M, van Beusekom J, Reise K (2004) Too cold to prosper — winter mortality prevents population increase of the introduced slipper limpet Crepidula fornicata in northern Europe. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 311:375–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Thieltges DW, Strasser M, Reise K (2006) How bad are invaders in coastal waters? The case of the American slipper limpet Crepidula fornicata in western Europe. Biol Invas 8:1673–1680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Tuente U, Piepenburg D, Spindler M (2002) Occurrence and settlement of the common shipworm Teredo navalis (Bivalvia: Teredinidae) in Bremerhaven harbours, northern Germany. Hegol Mar Res 56:87–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. van Beek GCW (2006) The Round goby Neogobius melanostomus first recorded in the Netherlands. Aquat Invas 1:42–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Van Benthem Jutting T (1943) Mollusca. C. Lamellibranchia. Fauna van Nederland 12:1–477Google Scholar
  69. Vrolik W, Harting P, Storm Buysing DJ, van Oordt JWL, von Baumhauer EH (1860) Verslag over den Paalworm. Natuurkundige Afdeeling der Koninklijke Nederlandsche Akademie van Wetenschappen, Amsterdam, pp 153Google Scholar
  70. Walne PR (1956) The biology and distribution of the slipper limpet Crepidula fornicata in Essex Rivers. Fish Invest Ser II 20(6):50Google Scholar
  71. Weidema IR (2000) Introduced species in the Nordic countries. Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen. Nord Environment 2000, 13, pp 242Google Scholar
  72. Wolff WJ (1999) Exotic invaders of the meso-oligohaline zone of estuaries in the Netherlands: why are there so many? Helgol Meeresunters 52:393–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wolff WJ (2005) Non-indigenous marine and estuarine species in The Netherlands. Zool Meded Leiden 79:1–116Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephan Gollasch
    • 1
  • Deniz Haydar
    • 2
  • Dan Minchin
    • 3
  • Wim J. Wolff
    • 4
  • Karsten Reise
    • 5
  1. 1.GoConsultHamburgGermany
  2. 2.Department of Marine Benthic Ecology and EvolutionUniversity of GroningenHarenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Marine Organism InvestigationsBallinaIreland
  4. 4.Department of Marine Benthic Ecology and EvolutionUniversity of GroningenHarenThe Netherlands
  5. 5.Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine ResearchWadden Sea Station SyltListGermany

Personalised recommendations