Epilog: The Future for Bees and Mankind



Mankind’s interest in honeybees is ancient, and bees were of importance to our forefathers mainly for their honey and wax. In modern times, the interest in bees has undergone a true renaissance for very different reasons. Albert Einstein (1879–1955) is reported to have said: “When bees vanish from the Earth, mankind will have just four more years to live; no bees, no pollination, no plants, no animals, no humans …”. This sentence should not, at least as far as the time frame is concerned, be taken too literally, but the statement carries more than a little truth. Bees are sensitive indicators of an intact environment, and as essential and persistent shapers of the environment, have a significance that cannot be estimated highly enough.


Mandibular Gland Sensitive Indicator Modern Time Royal Jelly Molecular Biological Method 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

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