Advertisement

Spectral/Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

  • J. F. de Boer
Part of the Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering book series (BIOMEDICAL)

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a low coherence interferometric method for imaging biological tissue [1,2]. More than a decade after its inception, the dominant implementation has been time domain OCT (TD-OCT), in which the length of a reference arm is rapidly scanned. The first spectral or Fourier domain OCT (SD/FD-OCT) implementation was reported in 1995 [3]. In SD-OCT, the reference arm is kept stationary, and the depth information is obtained by a Fourier transform of the spectrally resolved interference fringes in the detection arm of a Michelson interferometer. This approach has provided a significant advantage in signal to noise ratio (SNR), which, despite reports as early as 1998, [4, 5] has taken about half a decade to be recognized fully by the OCT community [6–8]. The first demonstration of SD-OCT for in vivo retinal imaging in 2002 [9] was followed by a full realization of the sensitivity advantage by video rate in vivo retinal imaging [10], including high-speed 3D volumetric imaging [11], ultra-high resolution video rate imaging [12, 13], and Doppler blood flow determination in the human retina [14, 15]. The superior sensitivity of SD-OCT combined with the lack of need for a fast mechanical scanning mechanism, has opened up the possibility of much faster scanning without loss of image quality and provided a paradigm shift from point sampling to volumetric mapping of biological tissue in vivo. The technology has been particularly promising for ophthalmology [16, 17]. In this chapter, the principles and system design considerations of SD-OCT will be discussed in detail.

Keywords

Shot Noise Coherence Function Optical Coherence Tomography Image Wavelength Assignment Dispersion Compensation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    A.F. Fercher, K. Mengedoht, W. Werner, Opt. Lett. 13(3), 186 (1988)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J.S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, J.G. Fujimoto, Science 254 (5035), 1178 (1991)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    A.F. Fercher, C.K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, S.Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117 (1-2), 43 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    G. Hausler, M.W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt., 3(1), 21 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    T. Mitsui, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1-Regular Papers Short Notes & Review Papers, 38(10), 6133 (1999)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. Leitgeb, C.K. Hitzenberger, A.F. Fercher, Opt. Exp., 11(8), 889 (2003)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J.F. de Boer, B.Cense, B.H. Park, M.C. Pierce, G.J. Tearney, B.E. Bouma, Opt. Lett., 28(21), 2067 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M.A. Choma, M.V. Sarunic, C.H. Yang, J.A. Izatt, Opt. Exp. 11(18), 2183 (2003)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, A.F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt., 7(3), 457 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    N. Nassif, B. Cense, B.H. Park, S.H. Yun, T.C. Chen, B.E. Bouma, G.J. Tearney, J.F. de Boer, Opt. Lett., 29(5), 480 (2004)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    N.A. Nassif, B. Cense, B.H. Park, M.C. Pierce, S.H. Yun, B.E. Bouma, G.J. Tearney, T.C. Chen, J.F. de Boer, Opt. Exp., 12(3), 367 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    B. Cense, N. Nassif, T.C. Chen, M.C. Pierce, S.H. Yun, B.H. Park, B.E. Bouma, G.J. Tearney, J.F. de Boer, Opt. Exp., 12(11), 2435 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. Wojtkowski, V.J. Srinivasan, T.H. Ko, J.G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, J.S. Duker, Opt. Exp., 12(11), 2404 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    R.A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A.F. Fercher, R.J. Zawadzki, T. Bajraszewski, Opt. Exp., 11(23), 3116 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    B.R. White, M.C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B.H. Park, G.J. Tearney, B.E. Bouma, T.C. Chen, J.F. de Boer, Opt. Exp., 2003. 11(25): pp. 3490-3497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, W. Wasilewski, C. Radzewicz, Am. J. Ophthalmol., 138(3), 412 (2004)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    T.C. Chen, B. Cense, M.C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B.H. Park, S.H. Yun, B.R. White, B.E. Bouma, G.J. Tearney, J.F. de Boer, Arch. Ophthalmol., 123(12), 1715 (2005)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    A.F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C.K. Hitzenberger, T. Lasser, Rep. Prog. Phys., 66(2), 239 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T.H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J.G. Fujimoto, A.F. Fercher, Arch. Ophthalmol., 121(5), 695 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    American National Standards Institute, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers Z136.1. 2000: OrlandoGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    A.B. Vakhtin, K.A. Peterson, W.R. Wood, D.J. Kane, Opt. Lett. 28(15), 1332 (2003)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    W.V. Sorin, D.M. Baney, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(12), 1404 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    L. Mandel, E. Wolf, Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. 80(516), 894 (1962)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    S.H. Yun, G.J. Tearney, B.E. Bouma, B.H. Park, J.F. de Boer, Opt. Exp. 11(26), 3598 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    R. Tripathi, N. Nassif, J.S. Nelson, B.H. Park, J.F. de Boer, Opt. Lett. 27(6), 406 (2002)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    B.H. Park, M.C. Pierce, B. Cense, S.H. Yun, M. Mujat, G.J. Tearney, B.E. Bouma, J.F. de Boer, Opt. Exp. 13(11), 3931 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    M. Mujat, B.H. Park, B. Cense, T.C. Chen, J.F. de Boer. J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 41205 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    C.K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, W. Drexler, A.F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt., 4(1), 144 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    G.J. Tearney, B.E. Bouma, J.G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 22(23), 1811 (1997)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F.X. Kartner, C. Pitris, S.A. Boppart, X.D. Li, E.P. Ippen, J.G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 24(17), 1221 (1999)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    J.F. de Boer, C.E. Saxer, J.S. Nelson, Appl. Opt. 40(31), 5787 (2001)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    A.F. Fercher, C.K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, R. Zawadzki, B. Karamata, T. Lasser, Opt. Commun. 204(1-6), 67 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    A.F. Fercher, C.K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, R. Zawadzki, B. Karamata, T. Lasser, Opt. Exp. 9(12), 610 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    D.L. Marks, A.L. Oldenburg, J.J. Reynolds, S.A. Boppart, Appl. Opt. 42(2), 204 (2003)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    D.L. Marks, A.L. Oldenburg, J.J. Reynolds, S.A. Boppart, Appl. Opt. 42(16), 3038 (2003)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    D.M. Snodderly, R.S. Weinhaus, J.C. Choi, J. Neurosci. 12(4), 1169 (1992)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    J.F. de Boer, U.S. Patent 6,980, 299, 2005Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    C. Dorrer, N. Belabas, J.P. Likforman, M. Joffre, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B Opt. Phys. 17(10), 1795 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    S.H. Yun, G.J. Tearney, J.F. de Boer, B.E. Bouma, Opt. Exp. 12(13), 2977 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    S.H. Yun, G.J. Tearney, J.F. de Boer, B.E. Bouma, Opt. Exp. 12(23), 5614 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    G. Moneron, A.C. Boccara, A. Dubois, Opt. Lett. 30(11), 1351 (2005)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    J.W. You, T.C. Chen, M. Mujat, B.H. Park, J.F. de Boer, Opt. Exp. 14(15), 6739 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Y.H. Zhao, Z.P. Chen, C. Saxer, S.H. Xiang, J.F. de Boer, J.S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 25(2), 114 (2000)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Y.H. Zhao, Z.P. Chen, C. Saxer, Q.M. Shen, S.H. Xiang, J.F. de Boer, J.S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 25(18), 1358 (2000)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    A.M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, J.K. Barton, J.A. Izatt, J. Biomed. Opt. 7(1), 123 (2002)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    V. Westphal, S. Yazdanfar, A.M. Rollins, J.A. Izatt, Opt. Lett., 27(1), 34 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Z.H. Ding, Y.H. Zhao, H.W. Ren, J.S. Nelson, Z.P. Chen, Opt. Exp. 10(5), 236 (2002)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    V.X.D. Yang, M.L. Gordon, B. Qi, J. Pekar, S. Lo, E. Seng-Yue, A. Mok, B.C. Wilson, I.A. Vitkin, Opt. Exp. 11(7), 794 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    S. Yazdanfar, A.M. Rollins, J.A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 25(19), 1448 (2000)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    S. Yazdanfar, A.M. Rollins, J.A. Izatt, Arch. Ophthalmol. 121(2), 235 (2003)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    R. Leitgeb, L.F. Schmetterer, M. Wojtkowski, C.K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, A.F. Fercher, Proc. SPIE 4619 (2002)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    S.H. Yun, G.J. Tearney, B.J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W.Y. Oh, A.E. Desjardins, M.J. Suter, R.C. Chan, J.A. Evans, I.K. Jang, N.S. Nishioka, J.F. de Boer, B.E. Bouma, Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429 (2006)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    E.C.W. Lee, J.F. de Boer, M. Mujat, H. Lim, S.H. Yun, Opt. Exp. 14(10), 4403 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    H. Lim, J.F. de Boer, B.H. Park, E.C.W. Lee, R. Yelin, S.H. Yun, Opt. Exp. 14(13), 5937 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    H. Lim, M. Mujat, C. Kerbage, E.C.W. Lee, Y. Chen, T.C. Chen, J.F. de Boer, Opt. Exp. 14(26), 12902 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. F. de Boer

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations