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Optical Coherence Tomography for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

  • X. Qi
  • M. V. SivakJr.
  • A. M. Rollins
Part of the Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering book series (BIOMEDICAL)

Gastroenterology, the study of the physiology and pathophysiology of the organs responsible for digestion, together with the treatment of patients with digestive disorders, has been shaped extensively by technology. As a clinical specialty, gastroenterology relies substantially on visual examination of internal organs with an optical device, i.e., endoscopy. Adolf Kussmaul (1822–1902) is credited with the first endoscopy in 1868, for which he used a long, rigid instrument [1]. Although such instruments became “semi-flexible” by the 1930s, they were challenging to use and therefore impractical. It was the development of the coherent fiberoptic bundle and its incorporation into an endoscope in 1957 that made endoscopy safe and widely applicable. Using the fiberoptic endoscope, in 1969, a method for removal of precancerous polyps from the colon was developed, the first of many endoscopic therapeutic procedures [2]. Although the fiberoptic endoscope evolved to a high level of technical sophistication, the coherent optical fiber bundle was largely supplanted after 1980 by the charge-coupled device (CCD).

Since the advent of colonoscopic polypectomy, therapeutic endoscopy has continued to evolve. Conversely, the development of diagnostic endoscopy, with the exception of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), has remained largely static. Since 1886, the endoscopic diagnosis of pathologic disorders has been based essentially on visual inspection. Consequently, endoscopic diagnosis is relatively inaccurate; its precision actually derives from the ability to obtain biopsies, and many such samples acquired because of suspected disease prove to be superfluous to clinical care, except that negative or non-contributory findings, even though necessary, increase costs.

Keywords

Optical Coherence Tomography Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Optical Coherence Tomography Image Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia Aberrant Crypt Focus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • X. Qi
  • M. V. SivakJr.
  • A. M. Rollins

There are no affiliations available

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