Advertisement

Optical Tissue Clearing to Enhance Imaging Performance for OCT

  • R. K. Wang
  • V. V. Tuchin
Part of the Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering book series (BIOMEDICAL)

Over the last decade, noninvasive or minimally invasive spectroscopy and imaging techniques have witnessed widespread and exciting applications in biomedical diagnostics. Optical techniques that use the intrinsic optical properties of biological tissues, such as light scattering, absorption, polarization, and fluorescence, have many advantages over the conventional X-ray computed tomography, MRI, and ultrasound imaging in terms of safety, costs, contrast, and resolution features. Time-resolved, phase-resolved, and frequency-resolved optical techniques are capable of deep-imaging of the tissues that could provide information of tissue macrostructures and oxygenation states and detect brain and breast tumors [1, 2], whereas confocal microscopy and multiphoton excitation imaging have been used to show cellular and subcellular details of superficial living tissues [3, 4]. However, most biological tissues strongly scatter the probing light within the visible and near infrared range, i.e., the therapeutic and/or diagnostic optical window. The multiple scattering of light is detrimental to imaging contrast and resolution, which limits the effective probing depth to several hundred micrometers for the confocal microscopy and multiphoton excitation imaging techniques. However, some clinical applications, such as early cancer diagnosis, require the visualization of intermediate depth range of the localized anatomical structures with micron-scale resolution.

This chapter is designed to introduce the effects of light scattering on OCT and discuss how multiple scattering of tissue would impact on the OCT imaging performances. We then elucidate the developments of techniques in reducing the overwhelming multiple scattering effects and improving imaging capabilities by the use of immersion techniques.

Keywords

Refractive Index Multiple Scattering Blood Glucose Concentration Imaging Depth Turbid Medium 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    A. Yodh, B. Chance, Phys. Today 48, 34 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    D. Delpy, Phys. World 7, 34 (1994).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    D.W. Piston, B.R. Masters, W.W. Webb, J. Microsc. 178, 20 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. Webb, R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946 (1995).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J.S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, J.G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    V.V. Tuchin (ed.), Coherent-Domain Optical Methods: Biomedical Diagnostics, Environmental and Material Science, vol. 1-2 (Kluwer, Boston, 2004).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    A.F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 157 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J.M. Schmitt, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 5, 1205 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    P.H. Tomolins, R.K. Wang, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2519 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    A.F. Fercher, C.K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, H. Sattmann, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J.M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, M. Yadlowsky, R.F. Bonner, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1427 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    J.G. Fujimoto, M.E. Brezinski, G.J. Tearney, S.A. Boppart, B.E. Bouma, M.R. Hee, J.F. Southern, E.A. Swanson, Nat. Med. 1, 970 (1995).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    G.J. Tearney, M.E. Brezinski, B.E. Bouma, S.A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J.F. Southern, J.G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    R.C. Youngquist, S. Carr, D.E.N. Davies, Opt. Lett. 12, 158 (1987).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    K. Takada, I. Yokohama, K. Chida, J. Noda, Appl. Opt. 26, 1603 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    A.F. Fercher, K. Mengedoht, W. Werner, Opt. Lett. 13, 1867 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    C.K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, A.F. Fercher, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 98 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    J.A. Izatt, M.R. Hee, E.A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, D. Huang, J.S. Schuman, C.A. Puliafito, J.G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 1584 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    W. Clivaz, F. Marquis-Weible, R.P. Salathe, R.P. Novak, H.H. Gilgen, Opt. Lett. 17, 4 (1992).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    M.R. Hee, J.A. Izatt, E.A. Swanson, D. Huang, C.P. Lin, J.S. Schuman, C.A. Puliafito, J.G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 326 (1995).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    S.A. Boppart, M.E. Brezinsk, B.E. Boump, G.J. Tearney, J.G. Fujimoto, Dev. Biol. 177, 54 (1996).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    C.A Puliafito, M.R. Hee, C.P. Lin, J.G. Fujimoto, Ophthalmology 102, 217 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    C. Pitris, C. Jesser, S.A. Boppart, D. Stamper, M.E. Brezinski, J.G. Fujimoto, J. Gastroenterol. 35, 87 (2000).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    S. Brand, J.M. Poneros, B.E. Bouma, G.J. Tearney, C.C. Compton, N.S. Nishioka, Endoscopy 32, 796 (2000).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    B.E. Bouma, G.J. Tearney, C.C. Compton, N.S. Nishioka, Gastrointest. Endosc. 51,467 (2000).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    S. Jackle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schroder, N. Soehendra, Endoscopy 32, 743 (2000).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    R.K. Wang, J.B. Elder, Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 201 (2002).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    B.W. Colston, M.J. Everett, L.B. Da Silva, L.L. Otis, P. Stroeve, H. Nathel, Appl. Opt. 37, 3582 (1998).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    J.M. Schmitt, M. Yadlowsky, R. Bonner, Dermatology 191, 93 (1995).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    N.D. Gladkova, G.A. Petrova, N.K. Nikulin, S.G. Radenska-Lopovok, L.B. Snopova, Y.P. Chumakov, V.A. Nasonova, V.M. Geilkonov, G.V. Geilkonov, R.V. Kuranov, A.M. Sergeev, F.I. Feldchtein, Skin Res. Technol. 6, 6 (2000).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    R.K. Wang, J.B. Elder, Laser Phys. 12, 611 (2002).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    R.K. Wang, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2281 (2002).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    V.V. Tuchin, Phys. Uspekhi 40, 495 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    V.V. Tuchin, I.L. Maksimova, D.A. Zimnyakov, I.L. Kon, A.H. Mavlutov, A.A. Mishin, J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 401 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    V.V. Tuchin, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 106 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    V.V. Tuchin, Optical Clearing of Tissues and Blood, vol. PM 154(SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 2005).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    V.V. Tuchin, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2497 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    V.V. Tuchin, Laser Phys. 15, 1109 (2005).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    V.V. Tuchin (ed.), Handbook of Optical Biomedical Diagnostics, vol. PM 107, (SPIE, Bellingham, 2002).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    B. Beauvoit, T. Kitai, B. Chance, Biophys. J. 67, 2501 (1994).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    J.T. Bruulsema, J.E. Hayward, T.J. Farrell, M.S. Patterson, L. Heinemann, M. Berger, T. Koschinsky, J. Sandahl-Christiansen, H. Orskov, Opt. Lett. 22, 190 (1997).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    E.K. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, A.J. Welch, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 2, 943 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    B. Chance, H. Liu, T. Kitai, Y. Zhang, Anal. Biochem. 227, 351 (1995).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    I.F. Cilesiz, A.J. Welch, Appl. Opt. 32, 477 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    M. Kohl, M. Esseupreis, M. Cope, Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1267 (1995).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    H. Liu, B. Beauvoit, M. Kimura, B. Chance, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 200 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    J.S. Maier, S.A. Walker, S. Fantini, M.A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, Opt. Lett. 19,2062 (1994).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    X. Xu, R.K. Wang, A. El Haj, Eur. Biophys. J. 32, 355 (2003).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    V.V. Tuchin, A.N. Bashkatov, E.A. Genina, Yu.P. Sinichkin, N.A. Lakodina Tech. Phys. Lett. 27, 489 (2001).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    G. Vargas, E.K. Chan, J.K. Barton, H.G. Rylander III, A.J. Welch, Lasers Surg. Med. 24, 133 (1999).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    R.K. Wang, X. Xu, V.V. Tuchin, J.B. Elder, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B18, 948 (2001).Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    M. Brezinski, K. Saunders, C. Jesser, X. Li, J. Fujimoto, Circulation 103, 1999 (2001).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    G. Vargas, K.F. Chan, S.L. Thomsen, A.J. Welch, Lasers Surg. Med. 29, 213 (2001).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    R.K. Wang, J.B. Elder, Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 201 (2002).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    R.K. Wang, V.V. Tuchin, J. X-Ray Sci. Tech. 10, 167 (2002).Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Y. He, R.K. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 200 (2004).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    R.K. Wang, X. Xu, Y. He, J.B. Elder, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 9, 234 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    X. Xu, R.K. Wang, Med. Phys. 30, 1246 (2003).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    X. Xu, R.K. Wang, J.B. Elder, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36, 1707 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    J.Y. Jiang, R.K. Wang, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 5283 (2004).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    J. Jiang, R.K. Wang, J. X-Ray Sci. Tech. 13, 149 (2005).Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    A.N. Bashkatov, E.A. Genina, Yu.P. Sinichkin, V.I. Kochubey, N.A. Lakodina, V.V. Tuchin, Biophys. J. 85, 3310 (2003).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    V.V. Tuchin, X. Xu, R.K. Wang, Appl. Opt. 41, 258 (2002).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    J.M. Schmitt, G. Kumar. Appl. Opt. 37, 2788 (1998).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    R.K. Wang, J. Modern Opt. 47, 103 (2000).Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    J.M. Schmitt, G. Kumar, Opt. Lett. 21, 1310 (1996).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    B. Beauvoit, T. Kitai, B. Chance, Biophys. J. 67, 2501 (1994).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    J.R. Mourant, J.P. Freyer, A.H. Hielscher, A.A. Eick, D. Shen, T.M. Johnson, Appl. Opt. 37, 3586 (1998).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    L.H. Wang, S.J. Jacques, L.Q. Zheng, Comput. Methods Prog. Biomed. 47, 131 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    G. Yao, L.V. Wang, Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2307 (1999).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    O. Khalil, Diab. Technol. Ther. 6, 660 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    R.O. Esenaliev, K.V. Larin, I.V. Larina, M. Motamedi, Opt. Lett. 26, 992 (2001).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    K.V. Larin, M.S. Eledrisi, M. Motamedi, R.O. Esenaliev, Diabetes Care 25, 2263 (2002).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    K.V. Larin, M. Motamedi, T.V. Ashitkov, R.O. Esenaliev, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1371 (2003).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    M.H. Khan, B. Choi, S. Chess, K.M. Kelly, J. McCullough, J.S. Nelson, Lasers Surg. Med. 34, 83 (2004).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    K.V. Larin, T. Akkin, M. Motamedi, R.O. Esenaliev, T.E. Millner, Appl. Opt. 43,3408 (2004).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    M. Essenpreis, A. Knüttel, D. Boecker, U.S. Patent 5,710,630, 20 Jan 1998Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    K.V. Larin, I.V. Larina, M. Motamedi, V. Gelikonov, R. Kuranov, R.O. Esenaliev, Proc. SPIE 4263, 83 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    J.S. Maier, S.A. Walker, S. Fantini, M.A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, Opt. Lett. 19,2062 (1994).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    M. Kohl, M. Cope, M. Essenpreis, D. Böcker, Opt. Lett. 19, 2170 (1994).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    J.T. Bruulsema, J.E. Hayward, T.J. Farrell, M.S. Patterson, L. Heinemann, M. Berger, T. Koschinsky, J. Sandahal-Christiansen, H. Orskov, M. Essenpreis, G. Schmelzeisen-Redeker, D. Böcker, Opt. Lett. 22, 190 (1997).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    L. Heinemann, U. Kramer, H.M. Klotzer, M. Hein, D. Volz, M. Hermann, T. Heise, K. Rave, Diab. Technol. Ther. 2, 211 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    D.W. Schmidtke, A.C. Freeland, A. Heller, R.T. Bonnecaze, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 294 (1998).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    M.E. Brezinski, G.J. Tearney, B.E. Bouma, J.A. Izatt, M.R. Hee, E.A. Swanson, J.F. Southern, J.G. Fujimoto, Circulation 93, 1206 (1996).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    M.E. Brezinski, G.J. Tearney, N.J. Weissman, S.A. Boppart, B.E. Bouma, M.R. Hee, A.E. Weyman, E.A. Swanson, J.F. Southern, J.G. Fujimoto, Heart 77, 397 (1997).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    J.G. Fujimoto, S.A. Boppart, G.J. Tearney, B.E. Bouma, C. Pitris, M.E. Brezinski, Heart 82, 128 (1999).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    P. Patwari, N.J. Weissman, S.A. Boppart, C.A. Jesser, D. Stamper, J.G. Fujimoto, M.E. Brezinski, Am. J. Cardiol. 85, 641 (2000).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Dorschel, A. Hahn, G. Mueller, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 36 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    S.Yu. Shchyogolev, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 490 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    A.V. Priezzhev, O.M. Ryaboshapka, N.N. Firsov, I.V. Sirko, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 76 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    S.M. Bertoluzzo, A. Bollini, M. Rsia, A. Raynal, Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 25, 339 (1999).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    X. Xu, R.K. Wang, J.B. Elder, V.V. Tuchin, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1205 (2003).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    E.I. Galanzha, V.V. Tuchin, A.V. Solovieva, T.V. Stepanova, Q. Luo, H. Cheng, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36, 1739 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. K. Wang
  • V. V. Tuchin

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations