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Redox Transformations and Transport Processes

Part of the Monographs in Electrochemistry book series (MOEC)

Abstract

According to the classical theory of simple electron-transfer reactions, the reactants get very close to the electrode surface, and then electrons can tunnel over the short distance (tenths of a nanometer) between the metal and the activated species in the solution phase. In the case of polymer-modified electrodes, the active parts of the polymer cannot approach the metal surface because the polymer chains are trapped in a tangled network, and chain diffusion is usually much slower than the time-scale of the transient electrochemical experiment. Therefore, the transport of electrons can be assumed to occur either via an electron exchange reaction (electron hopping) between neighboring redox sites if the segmental motions make it possible, or via the movement of delocalized electrons through conjugated systems (electronic conduction). The former mechanism is characteristic of redox polymers. In the case of electronically conducting polymers, electrochemical transformation—usually oxidation—of the nonconducting form of these polymers usually leads to a reorganization of the bonds of the macromolecule and the development of an extensively conjugated system. An electron-hopping mechanism is likely to be operative between the chains (interchain conduction) and defects, even in the case of conducting polymers. However, it is important to pay attention to more than just the "electronic charging" of the polymer film (i.e., to electron exchange at the metal│polymer interface and electron transport through the surface layer), since ions will cross the film│solution interface in order to preserve electroneutrality within the film. The movement of counterions (or less frequently that of co-ions) may also be the rate-determining step. A small imbalance in the charge in the electrochemical double layers can only exist at the interfacial regions.

Keywords: Electron transport - Electron exchange reaction - Dahms–Ruff theory - Advanced theories predicting the nonlinear D(c) function - Percolation and diffusion behaviors - Electronic conductivity - Delocalized band model - Mott model - Fluctuation-induced tunneling - Ion transport - Coupling of electron and ionic charge transport - Solvent transport - Dynamics of polymeric motion - Effect of film structure and morphology - Relaxation and hysteresis phenomena - Electrochemically stimulated conformational relaxation

Keywords

Electron Spin Resonance Charge Transport Redox Center Hysteresis Phenomenon Redox Species 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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